Development of upper gastrointestinal cancer in patients with symptomatic gallstones, cholecystectomy, and sphincterotomy: A nationwide cohort study
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exposures of gallstones and treatments thereof in relation to development of cancer have not been explored before in long-term follow-up studies. Our objective was to determine whether symptomatic gallstones, cholecystectomy, or sphincterotomy were associated with development of upper gastrointestinal cancers.
METHODS: This is a nationwide cohort study of persons born in Denmark 1930-1984 included from age 30 years with long-term follow-up (1977-2014). Exposures were hospital admissions with gallstones, cholecystectomy, and sphincterotomy. Time-varying covariates were included in analyses to allow the impact of exposures to change with time. Follow-up periods were 2-5 and > 5 years. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported.
RESULTS: A total of 4,465,962 persons were followed. We found positive associations between sphincterotomy and biliary (>5 years HR 4.34, CI [2.17-8.70]), gallbladder (2-5 years HR 20.7, CI [8.55-50.1]), and pancreatic cancer (2-5 years HR 3.68, CI [2.09-6.49]). Cholecystectomy was positively associated with duodenal (2-5 years HR 2.94, CI [1.31-6.58]) and small bowel cancer (2-5 years HR 2.75, CI [1.56-4.87]). Inverse associations were seen for cholecystectomy and biliary (>5 years HR 0.60, CI [0.41-0.87]), pancreatic (>5 years HR 0.45 CI [0.35-0.57]), esophageal (>5 years HR 0.57, CI [0.43-0.74]), and gastric cancer (>5 years HR 0.68, CI [0.55-0.86]) and for gallstones and pancreatic cancer (>5 years HR 0.66, CI [0.47-0.93]). Gallstones were positively associated with gallbladder (>5 years HR 3.51, CI [2.02-6.10]) and small bowel cancer (2-5 years HR 3.21, CI [1.60-6.45]).
CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between sphincterotomy and biliary cancer was identified. Cholecystectomy seems to be inversely associated with biliary, pancreatic, esophageal, and gastric cancer. Associations should be explored in similar large cohorts.
|Journal||Scandinavian Journal of Surgery|
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|