The Accuracy of Hemoglobin A1c and Fructosamine Evaluated by Long-Term Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Undergoing Hemodialysis

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INTRODUCTION: The accuracy of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a glycemic marker in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving hemodialysis (HD) remains unknown. To assess accuracy, we compared HbA1c and fructosamine levels with interstitial glucose measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with T2D receiving HD.

METHODS: Thirty patients in the HD group and 36 patients in the control group (T2D and an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m2) completed the study period of 17 weeks. CGM (Ipro2®, Medtronic) was performed 5 times for periods of up to 7 days (with 4-week intervals) during a 16-week period. HbA1c (mmol/mol), the estimated mean plasma glucose from HbA1c (eMPGA1c [mmol/L]) and fructosamine (μmol/L) was measured at week 17 and compared with mean sensor glucose levels from CGM.

FINDINGS: In the HD group, mean sensor glucose was 1.4 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.8) higher than the eMPGA1c, whereas the difference for controls was 0.1 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.1-[0.4]; p < 0.001). Adjusted for mean sensor glucose, HbA1c was lower in the HD group (-7.3 mmol/mol, 95% CI: -10.0-[-4.7]) than in the control group (p < 0.001), with no difference detected for fructosamine (p = 0.64).

DISCUSSION: HbA1c evaluated by CGM underestimates plasma glucose levels in patients receiving HD. The underestimation represents a clinical challenge in optimizing glycemic control in the HD population. Fructosamine is unaffected by the factors affecting HbA1c and appears to be more accurate for glycemic monitoring. CGM or fructosamine could thus complement HbA1c in obtaining more accurate glycemic control in this patient group.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBlood Purification
Pages (from-to)608–616
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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