Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. / Levy, Wayne C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linker, David T; Kenyon, Kenneth W; Cleland, John G F; Komajda, Michel; Remme, Willem J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Metra, Marco; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; COMET Investigators; Levy, Wayne C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linker, David T; Kenyon, Kenneth W; Cleland, John G F; Komajda, Michel; Remme, Willem J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Metra, Marco; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; COMET Investigators.

In: European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol. 11, No. 3, 01.03.2009, p. 256-63.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Levy, WC, Mozaffarian, D, Linker, DT, Kenyon, KW, Cleland, JGF, Komajda, M, Remme, WJ, Torp-Pedersen, C, Metra, M, Poole-Wilson, PA, COMET Investigators, Levy, WC, Mozaffarian, D, Linker, DT, Kenyon, KW, Cleland, JGF, Komajda, M, Remme, WJ, Torp-Pedersen, C, Metra, M, Poole-Wilson, PA & COMET Investigators 2009, 'Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials', European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 256-63. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048

APA

Levy, W. C., Mozaffarian, D., Linker, D. T., Kenyon, K. W., Cleland, J. G. F., Komajda, M., Remme, W. J., Torp-Pedersen, C., Metra, M., Poole-Wilson, P. A., COMET Investigators, Levy, W. C., Mozaffarian, D., Linker, D. T., Kenyon, K. W., Cleland, J. G. F., Komajda, M., Remme, W. J., Torp-Pedersen, C., ... COMET Investigators (2009). Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. European Journal of Heart Failure, 11(3), 256-63. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048

Vancouver

Levy WC, Mozaffarian D, Linker DT, Kenyon KW, Cleland JGF, Komajda M et al. Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. European Journal of Heart Failure. 2009 Mar 1;11(3):256-63. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048

Author

Levy, Wayne C ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Linker, David T ; Kenyon, Kenneth W ; Cleland, John G F ; Komajda, Michel ; Remme, Willem J ; Torp-Pedersen, Christian ; Metra, Marco ; Poole-Wilson, Philip A ; COMET Investigators ; Levy, Wayne C ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Linker, David T ; Kenyon, Kenneth W ; Cleland, John G F ; Komajda, Michel ; Remme, Willem J ; Torp-Pedersen, Christian ; Metra, Marco ; Poole-Wilson, Philip A ; COMET Investigators. / Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. In: European Journal of Heart Failure. 2009 ; Vol. 11, No. 3. pp. 256-63.

Bibtex

@article{e183bb90785e11df928f000ea68e967b,
title = "Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials",
abstract = "AIMS: A standard metric to estimate absolute treatment effects is numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT), which implicitly assumes that all benefits reverse at trial-end. However, in-trial survival benefits typically do not reverse until long after trial-end, so that NNT will substantially underestimate lifetime benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new concept, years-needed-to-treat (YNT) to add 1 year of life, that quantifies the expected average life expectancy for two treatments including the estimated years of life remaining post-trial. Numbers-needed-to-treat and YNT were calculated in the COMET trial, in which carvedilol vs. metoprolol tartrate resulted in 17% lower mortality over 4.8 years. A multivariate Cox model was used to predict survival. Remaining years of life were estimated using the mortality-life-table method. At trial-end, survival was 9% higher in the carvedilol arm. Assuming that patients remained on the same therapy post-trial, the average total years of life for carvedilol vs. metoprolol were 10.63 +/- 0.19 vs. 9.48 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.0001) or 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.64-1.66) additional years of life. The YNT was 9.2, indicating that 9.2 person-years of treatment added 1 person-year of life, compared with NNT of 59. CONCLUSION: Compared with NNT, the YNT method more accurately accounts for potential long-term benefits of interventions in randomized trials.",
author = "Levy, {Wayne C} and Dariush Mozaffarian and Linker, {David T} and Kenyon, {Kenneth W} and Cleland, {John G F} and Michel Komajda and Remme, {Willem J} and Christian Torp-Pedersen and Marco Metra and Poole-Wilson, {Philip A} and {COMET Investigators} and Levy, {Wayne C} and Dariush Mozaffarian and Linker, {David T} and Kenyon, {Kenneth W} and Cleland, {John G F} and Michel Komajda and Remme, {Willem J} and Christian Torp-Pedersen and Marco Metra and Poole-Wilson, {Philip A} and Torp-Pedersen, {Christian Tobias}",
note = "Keywords: Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; Carbazoles; Confidence Intervals; Follow-Up Studies; Heart Failure; Humans; Kaplan-Meiers Estimate; Life Expectancy; Metoprolol; Odds Ratio; Propanolamines; Survival Rate; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome",
year = "2009",
month = mar,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "256--63",
journal = "European Journal of Heart Failure",
issn = "1567-4215",
publisher = "JohnWiley & Sons Ltd",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials

AU - Levy, Wayne C

AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush

AU - Linker, David T

AU - Kenyon, Kenneth W

AU - Cleland, John G F

AU - Komajda, Michel

AU - Remme, Willem J

AU - Torp-Pedersen, Christian

AU - Metra, Marco

AU - Poole-Wilson, Philip A

AU - COMET Investigators

AU - Levy, Wayne C

AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush

AU - Linker, David T

AU - Kenyon, Kenneth W

AU - Cleland, John G F

AU - Komajda, Michel

AU - Remme, Willem J

AU - Torp-Pedersen, Christian

AU - Metra, Marco

AU - Poole-Wilson, Philip A

AU - COMET Investigators

N1 - Keywords: Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; Carbazoles; Confidence Intervals; Follow-Up Studies; Heart Failure; Humans; Kaplan-Meiers Estimate; Life Expectancy; Metoprolol; Odds Ratio; Propanolamines; Survival Rate; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome

PY - 2009/3/1

Y1 - 2009/3/1

N2 - AIMS: A standard metric to estimate absolute treatment effects is numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT), which implicitly assumes that all benefits reverse at trial-end. However, in-trial survival benefits typically do not reverse until long after trial-end, so that NNT will substantially underestimate lifetime benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new concept, years-needed-to-treat (YNT) to add 1 year of life, that quantifies the expected average life expectancy for two treatments including the estimated years of life remaining post-trial. Numbers-needed-to-treat and YNT were calculated in the COMET trial, in which carvedilol vs. metoprolol tartrate resulted in 17% lower mortality over 4.8 years. A multivariate Cox model was used to predict survival. Remaining years of life were estimated using the mortality-life-table method. At trial-end, survival was 9% higher in the carvedilol arm. Assuming that patients remained on the same therapy post-trial, the average total years of life for carvedilol vs. metoprolol were 10.63 +/- 0.19 vs. 9.48 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.0001) or 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.64-1.66) additional years of life. The YNT was 9.2, indicating that 9.2 person-years of treatment added 1 person-year of life, compared with NNT of 59. CONCLUSION: Compared with NNT, the YNT method more accurately accounts for potential long-term benefits of interventions in randomized trials.

AB - AIMS: A standard metric to estimate absolute treatment effects is numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT), which implicitly assumes that all benefits reverse at trial-end. However, in-trial survival benefits typically do not reverse until long after trial-end, so that NNT will substantially underestimate lifetime benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new concept, years-needed-to-treat (YNT) to add 1 year of life, that quantifies the expected average life expectancy for two treatments including the estimated years of life remaining post-trial. Numbers-needed-to-treat and YNT were calculated in the COMET trial, in which carvedilol vs. metoprolol tartrate resulted in 17% lower mortality over 4.8 years. A multivariate Cox model was used to predict survival. Remaining years of life were estimated using the mortality-life-table method. At trial-end, survival was 9% higher in the carvedilol arm. Assuming that patients remained on the same therapy post-trial, the average total years of life for carvedilol vs. metoprolol were 10.63 +/- 0.19 vs. 9.48 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.0001) or 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.64-1.66) additional years of life. The YNT was 9.2, indicating that 9.2 person-years of treatment added 1 person-year of life, compared with NNT of 59. CONCLUSION: Compared with NNT, the YNT method more accurately accounts for potential long-term benefits of interventions in randomized trials.

U2 - 10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048

DO - 10.1093/eurjhf/hfn048

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 19164422

VL - 11

SP - 256

EP - 263

JO - European Journal of Heart Failure

JF - European Journal of Heart Failure

SN - 1567-4215

IS - 3

ER -

ID: 20320376