The concentration of BTEX compounds and health risk assessment in municipal solid waste facilities and urban areas
Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review
In this study, human exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), along with their respective risk assessment is studied in four major units (n = 14-point sources) of the largest municipal solid waste management facilities (MSWF) in Iran. The results were compared with four urban sites in Tehran, capital of Iran. Workers at the pre-processing unit are exposed to the highest total BTEX (151 μg m−3). In specific, they were exposed to benzene concentrations of 11 μg m−3. Moreover, the total BTEX (t-BTEX) concentrations measured over the conveyor belt was 198 μg m−3 at most, followed by trommel (104), and active landfills (43). The mean concentration of ambient t-BTEX in Tehran is 100 μg m−3. On average, xylenes and toluene have the highest concentrations in both on-site and urban environments, with mean values of 24 and 21, and 41 and 37 μg m−3, respectively. Even though the non-carcinogenic risk of occupational exposure is negligible, BTEX is likely to increase the chance of carcinogenic risks (1.7E-05) for workers at the pre-processing unit. A definite carcinogenic risk of 1.3E-04, and non-carcinogenic effect, of HI = 1.6 were observed in one urban site. With the exception of the pre-processing unit, the citizens of Tehran had higher exposure to BTEX. Overall, BTEX concentrations in the largest MSWF of Iran remains an issue of public health concern.
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
- Benzene, Exposure, Health risk, Municipal solid waste, Volatile organic compounds