Contributions of the Scandinavian Countries to the Development of Non-Animal Alternatives in Toxicology

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The development of cell methods for the toxicity evaluation of drugs and chemicals started in Scandinavia at the end of the 1970s. The pioneer in vitro toxicologist was Björn Ekwall (1940-2000), who published his basal cytotoxicity concept in 1983, and started the MEIC project in 1989, the first international project aiming to evaluate the competence of cell toxicity tests to predict human toxicity. The EU framework project, ACuteTox (2005-10), can be seen as a continuation of the MEIC study. Generally, the early use of in vitro methods in all Scandinavian countries initially began for cell toxicology and genotoxicology and then for neurotoxicology and other tissue-specific toxicities. The Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicity, established in 1983, played an important role, not only in gathering the MEIC participants, but also by encouraging other in vitro toxicologists from Scandinavia to meet at its annual workshops. The EU framework programmes, Oculotox in vitro, ACuteTox, ReproTect, Sens-it-iv and NanoTest, secured the place of research on alternative methods to replace animal experiments in Scandinavia. After the implementation of Directive 2010/63/EU, governmental measures have promoted research and education on alternative methods in various countries, but without providing sufficient resources, especially for Replacement.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology
EditorsMichael Balls, Robert Combes, Andrew Worth
Number of pages12
PublisherAcademic Press
Publication date2019
ISBN (Print)9780128136973
ISBN (Electronic)9780128136980
Publication statusPublished - 2019

    Research areas

  • ACuteTox, BEMF, Carcinogenicity, Cell toxicology, Genotoxicology, MEIC, Neurotoxicology, ReproTect, Sens-it-iv, SSCT

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