Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Risk of Testicular Cancer A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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The incidence of many hormone-dependent diseases, including testicular cancer, have sharply increased in all high-income countries during the 20th century. This is not fully explained by established risk factors. Concurrent, increasing exposure to antiandrogenic environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fetal life may partially explain this trend. This systematic review assessed available evidence regarding the association between environmental EDC exposure and risk of testicular cancer (seminomas and non-seminomas). Following PRISMA guidelines, a search of English peer-reviewed literature published prior to December 14 th, 2020, in the databases PubMed and Embase® was performed. Among the 279 identified records, 19 were eligible for quality assessment and 10 for further meta-analysis. The completeness of reporting was high across papers, but over 50% were considered subject to potential risk of bias. Mean age at diagnosis was 31.9 years. None considered effects of EDCs multipollutant mixtures. The meta-analyses showed that maternal exposure to combined EDCs was associated with a higher risk of testicular cancer in male offspring (summary RRs: 2.16, (95% CI:1.78-2.62); 1.93 (95% CI:1.49-2.48); 2.78 (95% CI:2.27-3.41) for all, seminoma, non-seminoma respectively). Similarly, high maternal exposures to grouped organochlorines and organo-halogens were associated with higher risk of seminoma and non-seminoma in the offspring. Summary estimates related to postnatal adult male EDC exposures were inconsistent.Maternal but not postnatal adult male, EDC exposures were consistently associated with a higher risk of testicular cancer, particularly risk of non-seminomas. However, the quality of studies was mixed and considering the fields complexity, more prospective studies of prenatal EDC multipollutant mixture exposures and testicular cancer are needed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Jul 2021

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© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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