Individuals with an increased risk of occupationally and nonoccupationally induced adverse health effects may be identified by genetic monitoring and genetic screening. Genetic monitoring of induced genetic changes is performed by measurements of chromosomal aberrations or DNA-lesions. Genetic screening includes detection of inherited traits by measurements of enzyme activities in blood, the presence of a specific gene or a specific mutation. Inherited serum alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency increases the risk of developing a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The risk is exacerbated by occupational exposure to dust. The available methods used for genetic screening of individual susceptibility to occupational exposures are not sufficiently validated for routine use. This is especially relevant concerning the population validity referring to how well the markers depict an event in a population. Legal and ethical aspects of preemployment genetic testing are currently discussed in Denmark.