Differential antibody responses to gliadin-derived indigestible peptides in patients with schizophrenia

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R T McLean, Philip Wilson, D St Clair, C J Mustard, J Wei

Gluten consumption has previously been implicated in the development of schizophrenia while an immunological link between gluten and schizophrenia was established by the detection of circulating antibodies against gliadin, a major component of wheat gluten. Several studies have reported an increase in circulating antibodies against native gliadin molecules that are unlikely to survive degradation in the digestive system. In this study, therefore, we measured plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies against indigestible gliadin-derived peptide antigens using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) among 169 patients with schizophrenia and 236 control subjects. We also examined the plasma levels of IgG and IgA antibodies against the mixture of native gliadins using commercially available ELISA kits. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia had the increased levels of plasma IgG against the γ-gliadin-derived fragment, namely AAQ6C, but decreased levels of plasma IgG against the α- and γ3-gliadin-derived antigens, as compared with control subjects. This study also demonstrated a uniform decrease in plasma IgA antibodies against gliadin-derived antigens. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma antibodies against native gliadins between the patient group and the control group. Of eight gliadin-derived antigens tested, four showed a sensitivity of >20% against the specificity of ⩾95% for detection of their corresponding antibodies in plasma. These four tests may thus have a potential to serve as biomarkers for the identification of schizophrenia subgroups that may need an alternative therapy or precision treatment. Further investigation with clinical trials should be carried out to explore this possibility.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1121
JournalTranslational Psychiatry
Volume7
Issue number5
Number of pages5
ISSN2158-3188
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

    Research areas

  • Adult, Antibody Formation/drug effects, Antigens, Autoantibodies/drug effects, Biomarkers/blood, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods, Female, Gliadin/immunology, Glutens/adverse effects, Humans, Immunoglobulin A/blood, Immunoglobulin G/blood, Male, Middle Aged, Peptides/immunology, Schizophrenia/blood

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