Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients: a diagnostic accuracy review

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

Background: Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidencebased consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline and Embase for clinical studies conducted in primary care using a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes.

Results: We included seven studies investigating urine sampling technique in 1062 symptomatic patients in primary care. Mid-stream-clean-catch had a positive predictive value of 0.79 to 0.95 and a negative predictive value close to 1 compared to sterile techniques. Two randomized controlled trials found no difference in infection rate between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples.

Conclusions: At present, no evidence suggests that sampling technique affects the accuracy of the microbiological diagnosis in non-pregnant women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. However, the evidence presented is in-direct and the difference between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples remains to be investigated in a paired design to verify the present findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number72
JournalB M C Family Practice
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jun 2016

    Research areas

  • "Urinary tract infections" [Mesh], "Urine" [Mesh], "Specimen handling" [Mesh], "Urine specimen collection" [Mesh], "Primary health care" [Mesh], "General practice" [Mesh]

ID: 163194732