Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Standard

Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study. / Schnohr, Christina; Højbjerre, Lise; Riegels, Mette; Ledet, Luise; Larsen, Tine; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Petersen, Liselotte; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten.

In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2004, p. 250-6.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Harvard

Schnohr, C, Højbjerre, L, Riegels, M, Ledet, L, Larsen, T, Schultz-Larsen, K, Petersen, L, Prescott, E & Grønbaek, M 2004, 'Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study', Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 250-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/14034940310019489

APA

Schnohr, C., Højbjerre, L., Riegels, M., Ledet, L., Larsen, T., Schultz-Larsen, K., ... Grønbaek, M. (2004). Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 32(4), 250-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/14034940310019489

Vancouver

Schnohr C, Højbjerre L, Riegels M, Ledet L, Larsen T, Schultz-Larsen K et al. Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2004;32(4):250-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/14034940310019489

Author

Schnohr, Christina ; Højbjerre, Lise ; Riegels, Mette ; Ledet, Luise ; Larsen, Tine ; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten ; Petersen, Liselotte ; Prescott, Eva ; Grønbaek, Morten. / Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study. In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2004 ; Vol. 32, No. 4. pp. 250-6.

Bibtex

@article{061b19b0c2c811dd8ca2000ea68e967b,
title = "Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: This study aims at examining whether the relation between established risk factors and mortality differs with socioeconomic status as measured by level of education. METHODS: A population-based sample of 14,399 women and 16,236 men aged 20-93 years from Copenhagen was stratified into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically inactive, and obese. During a mean follow up of 16 years 10,952 subjects died. Compared with subjects with the lowest educational level, women with the highest educational level had a relative risk of 0.80 (95{\%} CI; 0.70-0.91), and men of 0.71 (0.65-0.78). Heavy smoking compared with never smoking implied a more than twofold increased risk at all three educational levels among both men and women. The relation between alcohol intake and mortality was J-shaped on all three educational levels. There were decreasing risk functions describing the relations between physical activity and mortality on all three strata. Further, subjects who were either very lean or obese had increased risks of death compared with those of normal weight at all educational levels in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in distribution of the main known risk factors may be part of the explanation for the differences in mortality risk. However, these risk factors seem to influence mortality equally at different educational levels. Therefore, social inequalities in mortality do not seem to be explained only by differences in effect of lifestyle risk factors, but are also related to the social rank or unexamined factors within.",
author = "Christina Schnohr and Lise H{\o}jbjerre and Mette Riegels and Luise Ledet and Tine Larsen and Kirsten Schultz-Larsen and Liselotte Petersen and Eva Prescott and Morten Gr{\o}nbaek",
note = "Keywords: Alcohol Drinking; Denmark; Educational Status; Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Obesity; Population Surveillance; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Smoking",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1080/14034940310019489",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "250--6",
journal = "Scandinavian Journal of Public Health",
issn = "1403-4948",
publisher = "SAGE Publications",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study

AU - Schnohr, Christina

AU - Højbjerre, Lise

AU - Riegels, Mette

AU - Ledet, Luise

AU - Larsen, Tine

AU - Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

AU - Petersen, Liselotte

AU - Prescott, Eva

AU - Grønbaek, Morten

N1 - Keywords: Alcohol Drinking; Denmark; Educational Status; Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Obesity; Population Surveillance; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Smoking

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - OBJECTIVES: This study aims at examining whether the relation between established risk factors and mortality differs with socioeconomic status as measured by level of education. METHODS: A population-based sample of 14,399 women and 16,236 men aged 20-93 years from Copenhagen was stratified into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically inactive, and obese. During a mean follow up of 16 years 10,952 subjects died. Compared with subjects with the lowest educational level, women with the highest educational level had a relative risk of 0.80 (95% CI; 0.70-0.91), and men of 0.71 (0.65-0.78). Heavy smoking compared with never smoking implied a more than twofold increased risk at all three educational levels among both men and women. The relation between alcohol intake and mortality was J-shaped on all three educational levels. There were decreasing risk functions describing the relations between physical activity and mortality on all three strata. Further, subjects who were either very lean or obese had increased risks of death compared with those of normal weight at all educational levels in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in distribution of the main known risk factors may be part of the explanation for the differences in mortality risk. However, these risk factors seem to influence mortality equally at different educational levels. Therefore, social inequalities in mortality do not seem to be explained only by differences in effect of lifestyle risk factors, but are also related to the social rank or unexamined factors within.

AB - OBJECTIVES: This study aims at examining whether the relation between established risk factors and mortality differs with socioeconomic status as measured by level of education. METHODS: A population-based sample of 14,399 women and 16,236 men aged 20-93 years from Copenhagen was stratified into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically inactive, and obese. During a mean follow up of 16 years 10,952 subjects died. Compared with subjects with the lowest educational level, women with the highest educational level had a relative risk of 0.80 (95% CI; 0.70-0.91), and men of 0.71 (0.65-0.78). Heavy smoking compared with never smoking implied a more than twofold increased risk at all three educational levels among both men and women. The relation between alcohol intake and mortality was J-shaped on all three educational levels. There were decreasing risk functions describing the relations between physical activity and mortality on all three strata. Further, subjects who were either very lean or obese had increased risks of death compared with those of normal weight at all educational levels in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in distribution of the main known risk factors may be part of the explanation for the differences in mortality risk. However, these risk factors seem to influence mortality equally at different educational levels. Therefore, social inequalities in mortality do not seem to be explained only by differences in effect of lifestyle risk factors, but are also related to the social rank or unexamined factors within.

U2 - 10.1080/14034940310019489

DO - 10.1080/14034940310019489

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 15370764

VL - 32

SP - 250

EP - 256

JO - Scandinavian Journal of Public Health

JF - Scandinavian Journal of Public Health

SN - 1403-4948

IS - 4

ER -

ID: 8876446