Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

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Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013 : quantifying the epidemiological transition. / Murray, Christopher J L; Barber, Ryan M; Foreman, Kyle J; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Bachman, Victoria F; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D; Blosser, Christopher D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Bolliger, Ian W; Bora Başara, Berrak; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R A; Boyers, Lindsay N; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D; Brooks, Peter; Brown, Jonathan C; Brugha, Traolach S; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C; Budke, Christine M; Bulchis, Anne; Bulloch, Andrew G; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Carabin, Hélène; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M; Coffeng, Luc E; Coggeshall, Megan S; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Cooke, Graham S; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie T; Coppola, Luis M; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H; Crump, John A; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Diaz-Torné, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C; Ebel, Beth E; Edmond, Karen M; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F; Feigin, Valery L; Felson, David T; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G; Ferrari, Alize J; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Fürst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Peter; Gibney, Katherine B; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; González-Medina, Diego; Gosselin, Richard A; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish C; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J; Hansen, Gillian M; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmøller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hay, Roderick J; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hosgood, H Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A; Khan, Ejaz A; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kyu, Hmwe H; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E B; Leasher, Janet L; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly E; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S; Lind, Maggie; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Lofgren, Katherine T; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Robyn M; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A; Ma, Stefan; Macintyre, Michael F; Mackay, Mark T; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marzan, Melvin B; Masci, Joseph R; Mashal, Mohammad T; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; Mcgill, Neil W; Mcgrath, John J; Mckee, Martin; Mclain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mitchell, Philip B; Mock, Charles N; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L D; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J; Mooney, Meghan D; Moore, Ami R; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Moyer, Madeline L; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Msemburi, William T; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murdoch, Michele E; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K M Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Nguyen, Grant; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer L; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Opio, John Nelson; Ortblad, Katrina; Ortiz, Alberto; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patten, Scott B; Patton, George C; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phillips, Bryan K; Phillips, David E; Piel, Frédéric B; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Pullan, Rachel L; Qato, Dima M; Quistberg, D Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahman, Sajjad U; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, D Allen; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roth, Gregory A; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H; Rowley, Jane T; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Saeedi, Mohammad Y; Saha, Sukanta; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Sanabria, Juan R; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Scarborough, Peter; Schneider, Ione J; Schöttker, Ben; Schumacher, Austin E; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serina, Peter T; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shackelford, Katya A; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shamah Levy, Teresa; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J; Stevens, Antony; Stewart, Andrea; Stovner, Lars J; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R; Te Ao, Braden J; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Temesgen, Awoke M; Templin, Tara; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Uzun, Selen B; Van Brakel, Wim H; Van De Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H; Van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi J; Venketasubramanian, N; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Wagner, Joseph; Waller, Stephen G; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Linhong; Warouw, Tati S; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Wenzhi, Wang; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Thomas N; Wolfe, Charles D; Wolock, Timothy M; Woolf, Anthony D; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiaonong; Salomon, Joshua A; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 386, No. 10009, 28.11.2015, p. 2145-2191.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Murray, CJL, Barber, RM, Foreman, KJ, Abbasoglu Ozgoren, A, Abd-Allah, F, Abera, SF, Aboyans, V, Abraham, JP, Abubakar, I, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NM, Achoki, T, Ackerman, IN, Ademi, Z, Adou, AK, Adsuar, JC, Afshin, A, Agardh, EE, Alam, SS, Alasfoor, D, Albittar, MI, Alegretti, MA, Alemu, ZA, Alfonso-Cristancho, R, Alhabib, S, Ali, R, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Almazroa, MA, Alsharif, U, Alvarez, E, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Ameh, EA, Amini, H, Ammar, W, Anderson, HR, Anderson, BO, Antonio, CAT, Anwari, P, Arnlöv, J, Arsic Arsenijevic, VS, Artaman, A, Asghar, RJ, Assadi, R, Atkins, LS, Avila, MA, Awuah, B, Bachman, VF, Badawi, A, Bahit, MC, Balakrishnan, K, Banerjee, A, Barker-Collo, SL, Barquera, S, Barregard, L, Barrero, LH, Basu, A, Basu, S, Basulaiman, MO, Beardsley, J, Bedi, N, Beghi, E, Bekele, T, Bell, ML, Benjet, C, Bennett, DA, Bensenor, IM, Benzian, H, Bernabé, E, Bertozzi-Villa, A, Beyene, TJ, Bhala, N, Bhalla, A, Bhutta, ZA, Bienhoff, K, Bikbov, B, Biryukov, S, Blore, JD, Blosser, CD, Blyth, FM, Bohensky, MA, Bolliger, IW, Bora Başara, B, Bornstein, NM, Bose, D, Boufous, S, Bourne, RRA, Boyers, LN, Brainin, M, Brayne, CE, Brazinova, A, Breitborde, NJK, Brenner, H, Briggs, AD, Brooks, P, Brown, JC, Brugha, TS, Buchbinder, R, Buckle, GC, Budke, CM, Bulchis, A, Bulloch, AG, Campos-Nonato, IR, Carabin, H, Carapetis, JR, Cárdenas, R, Carpenter, DO, Caso, V, Castañeda-Orjuela, CA, Castro, RE, Catalá-López, F, Cavalleri, F, Çavlin, A, Chadha, VK, Chang, J-C, Charlson, FJ, Chen, H, Chen, W, Chiang, PP, Chimed-Ochir, O, Chowdhury, R, Christensen, H, Christophi, CA, Cirillo, M, Coates, MM, Coffeng, LE, Coggeshall, MS, Colistro, V, Colquhoun, SM, Cooke, GS, Cooper, C, Cooper, LT, Coppola, LM, Cortinovis, M, Criqui, MH, Crump, JA, Cuevas-Nasu, L, Danawi, H, Dandona, L, Dandona, R, Dansereau, E, Dargan, PI, Davey, G, Davis, A, Davitoiu, DV, Dayama, A, De Leo, D, Degenhardt, L, Del Pozo-Cruz, B, Dellavalle, RP, Deribe, K, Derrett, S, Des Jarlais, DC, Dessalegn, M, Dharmaratne, SD, Dherani, MK, Diaz-Torné, C, Dicker, D, Ding, EL, Dokova, K, Dorsey, ER, Driscoll, TR, Duan, L, Duber, HC, Ebel, BE, Edmond, KM, Elshrek, YM, Endres, M, Ermakov, SP, Erskine, HE, Eshrati, B, Esteghamati, A, Estep, K, Faraon, EJA, Farzadfar, F, Fay, DF, Feigin, VL, Felson, DT, Fereshtehnejad, S-M, Fernandes, JG, Ferrari, AJ, Fitzmaurice, C, Flaxman, AD, Fleming, TD, Foigt, N, Forouzanfar, MH, Fowkes, FGR, Paleo, UF, Franklin, RC, Fürst, T, Gabbe, B, Gaffikin, L, Gankpé, FG, Geleijnse, JM, Gessner, BD, Gething, P, Gibney, KB, Giroud, M, Giussani, G, Gomez Dantes, H, Gona, P, González-Medina, D, Gosselin, RA, Gotay, CC, Goto, A, Gouda, HN, Graetz, N, Gugnani, HC, Gupta, R, Gupta, R, Gutiérrez, RA, Haagsma, J, Hafezi-Nejad, N, Hagan, H, Halasa, YA, Hamadeh, RR, Hamavid, H, Hammami, M, Hancock, J, Hankey, GJ, Hansen, GM, Hao, Y, Harb, HL, Haro, JM, Havmøller, R, Hay, SI, Hay, RJ, Heredia-Pi, IB, Heuton, KR, Heydarpour, P, Higashi, H, Hijar, M, Hoek, HW, Hoffman, HJ, Hosgood, HD, Hossain, M, Hotez, PJ, Hoy, DG, Hsairi, M, Hu, G, Huang, C, Huang, JJ, Husseini, A, Huynh, C, Iannarone, ML, Iburg, KM, Innos, K, Inoue, M, Islami, F, Jacobsen, KH, Jarvis, DL, Jassal, SK, Jee, SH, Jeemon, P, Jensen, PN, Jha, V, Jiang, G, Jiang, Y, Jonas, JB, Juel, K, Kan, H, Karch, A, Karema, CK, Karimkhani, C, Karthikeyan, G, Kassebaum, NJ, Kaul, A, Kawakami, N, Kazanjan, K, Kemp, AH, Kengne, AP, Keren, A, Khader, YS, Khalifa, SEA, Khan, EA, Khan, G, Khang, Y-H, Kieling, C, Kim, D, Kim, S, Kim, Y, Kinfu, Y, Kinge, JM, Kivipelto, M, Knibbs, LD, Knudsen, AK, Kokubo, Y, Kosen, S, Krishnaswami, S, Kuate Defo, B, Kucuk Bicer, B, Kuipers, EJ, Kulkarni, C, Kulkarni, VS, Kumar, GA, Kyu, HH, Lai, T, Lalloo, R, Lallukka, T, Lam, H, Lan, Q, Lansingh, VC, Larsson, A, Lawrynowicz, AEB, Leasher, JL, Leigh, J, Leung, R, Levitz, CE, Li, B, Li, Y, Li, Y, Lim, SS, Lind, M, Lipshultz, SE, Liu, S, Liu, Y, Lloyd, BK, Lofgren, KT, Logroscino, G, Looker, KJ, Lortet-Tieulent, J, Lotufo, PA, Lozano, R, Lucas, RM, Lunevicius, R, Lyons, RA, Ma, S, Macintyre, MF, Mackay, MT, Majdan, M, Malekzadeh, R, Marcenes, W, Margolis, DJ, Margono, C, Marzan, MB, Masci, JR, Mashal, MT, Matzopoulos, R, Mayosi, BM, Mazorodze, TT, Mcgill, NW, Mcgrath, JJ, Mckee, M, Mclain, A, Meaney, PA, Medina, C, Mehndiratta, MM, Mekonnen, W, Melaku, YA, Meltzer, M, Memish, ZA, Mensah, GA, Meretoja, A, Mhimbira, FA, Micha, R, Miller, TR, Mills, EJ, Mitchell, PB, Mock, CN, Mohamed Ibrahim, N, Mohammad, KA, Mokdad, AH, Mola, GLD, Monasta, L, Montañez Hernandez, JC, Montico, M, Montine, TJ, Mooney, MD, Moore, AR, Moradi-Lakeh, M, Moran, AE, Mori, R, Moschandreas, J, Moturi, WN, Moyer, ML, Mozaffarian, D, Msemburi, WT, Mueller, UO, Mukaigawara, M, Mullany, EC, Murdoch, ME, Murray, J, Murthy, KS, Naghavi, M, Naheed, A, Naidoo, KS, Naldi, L, Nand, D, Nangia, V, Narayan, KMV, Nejjari, C, Neupane, SP, Newton, CR, Ng, M, Ngalesoni, FN, Nguyen, G, Nisar, MI, Nolte, S, Norheim, OF, Norman, RE, Norrving, B, Nyakarahuka, L, Oh, I-H, Ohkubo, T, Ohno, SL, Olusanya, BO, Opio, JN, Ortblad, K, Ortiz, A, Pain, AW, Pandian, JD, Panelo, CIA, Papachristou, C, Park, E-K, Park, J-H, Patten, SB, Patton, GC, Paul, VK, Pavlin, BI, Pearce, N, Pereira, DM, Perez-Padilla, R, Perez-Ruiz, F, Perico, N, Pervaiz, A, Pesudovs, K, Peterson, CB, Petzold, M, Phillips, MR, Phillips, BK, Phillips, DE, Piel, FB, Plass, D, Poenaru, D, Polinder, S, Pope, D, Popova, S, Poulton, RG, Pourmalek, F, Prabhakaran, D, Prasad, NM, Pullan, RL, Qato, DM, Quistberg, DA, Rafay, A, Rahimi, K, Rahman, SU, Raju, M, Rana, SM, Razavi, H, Reddy, KS, Refaat, A, Remuzzi, G, Resnikoff, S, Ribeiro, AL, Richardson, L, Richardus, JH, Roberts, DA, Rojas-Rueda, D, Ronfani, L, Roth, GA, Rothenbacher, D, Rothstein, DH, Rowley, JT, Roy, N, Ruhago, GM, Saeedi, MY, Saha, S, Sahraian, MA, Sampson, UKA, Sanabria, JR, Sandar, L, Santos, IS, Satpathy, M, Sawhney, M, Scarborough, P, Schneider, IJ, Schöttker, B, Schumacher, AE, Schwebel, DC, Scott, JG, Seedat, S, Sepanlou, SG, Serina, PT, Servan-Mori, EE, Shackelford, KA, Shaheen, A, Shahraz, S, Shamah Levy, T, Shangguan, S, She, J, Sheikhbahaei, S, Shi, P, Shibuya, K, Shinohara, Y, Shiri, R, Shishani, K, Shiue, I, Shrime, MG, Sigfusdottir, ID, Silberberg, DH, Simard, EP, Sindi, S, Singh, A, Singh, JA, Singh, L, Skirbekk, V, Slepak, EL, Sliwa, K, Soneji, S, Søreide, K, Soshnikov, S, Sposato, LA, Sreeramareddy, CT, Stanaway, JD, Stathopoulou, V, Stein, DJ, Stein, MB, Steiner, C, Steiner, TJ, Stevens, A, Stewart, A, Stovner, LJ, Stroumpoulis, K, Sunguya, BF, Swaminathan, S, Swaroop, M, Sykes, BL, Tabb, KM, Takahashi, K, Tandon, N, Tanne, D, Tanner, M, Tavakkoli, M, Taylor, HR, Te Ao, BJ, Tediosi, F, Temesgen, AM, Templin, T, Ten Have, M, Tenkorang, EY, Terkawi, AS, Thomson, B, Thorne-Lyman, AL, Thrift, AG, Thurston, GD, Tillmann, T, Tonelli, M, Topouzis, F, Toyoshima, H, Traebert, J, Tran, BX, Trillini, M, Truelsen, T, Tsilimbaris, M, Tuzcu, EM, Uchendu, US, Ukwaja, KN, Undurraga, EA, Uzun, SB, Van Brakel, WH, Van De Vijver, S, van Gool, CH, Van Os, J, Vasankari, TJ, Venketasubramanian, N, Violante, FS, Vlassov, VV, Vollset, SE, Wagner, GR, Wagner, J, Waller, SG, Wan, X, Wang, H, Wang, J, Wang, L, Warouw, TS, Weichenthal, S, Weiderpass, E, Weintraub, RG, Wenzhi, W, Werdecker, A, Westerman, R, Whiteford, HA, Wilkinson, JD, Williams, TN, Wolfe, CD, Wolock, TM, Woolf, AD, Wulf, S, Wurtz, B, Xu, G, Yan, LL, Yano, Y, Ye, P, Yentür, GK, Yip, P, Yonemoto, N, Yoon, S-J, Younis, MZ, Yu, C, Zaki, ME, Zhao, Y, Zheng, Y, Zonies, D, Zou, X, Salomon, JA, Lopez, AD & Vos, T 2015, 'Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition', The Lancet, vol. 386, no. 10009, pp. 2145-2191. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X

APA

Murray, C. J. L., Barber, R. M., Foreman, K. J., Abbasoglu Ozgoren, A., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., ... Vos, T. (2015). Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition. The Lancet, 386(10009), 2145-2191. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X

Vancouver

Murray CJL, Barber RM, Foreman KJ, Abbasoglu Ozgoren A, Abd-Allah F, Abera SF et al. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition. The Lancet. 2015 Nov 28;386(10009):2145-2191. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X

Author

Murray, Christopher J L ; Barber, Ryan M ; Foreman, Kyle J ; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw F ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abraham, Jerry P ; Abubakar, Ibrahim ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M ; Achoki, Tom ; Ackerman, Ilana N ; Ademi, Zanfina ; Adou, Arsène K ; Adsuar, José C ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agardh, Emilie E ; Alam, Sayed Saidul ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Albittar, Mohammed I ; Alegretti, Miguel A ; Alemu, Zewdie A ; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael ; Alhabib, Samia ; Ali, Raghib ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Almazroa, Mohammad A ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alvarez, Elena ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T ; Ameh, Emmanuel A ; Amini, Heresh ; Ammar, Walid ; Anderson, H Ross ; Anderson, Benjamin O ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Anwari, Palwasha ; Arnlöv, Johan ; Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S ; Artaman, Al ; Asghar, Rana J ; Assadi, Reza ; Atkins, Lydia S ; Avila, Marco A ; Awuah, Baffour ; Bachman, Victoria F ; Badawi, Alaa ; Bahit, Maria C ; Balakrishnan, Kalpana ; Banerjee, Amitava ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L ; Barquera, Simon ; Barregard, Lars ; Barrero, Lope H ; Basu, Arindam ; Basu, Sanjay ; Basulaiman, Mohammed O ; Beardsley, Justin ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Beghi, Ettore ; Bekele, Tolesa ; Bell, Michelle L ; Benjet, Corina ; Bennett, Derrick A ; Bensenor, Isabela M ; Benzian, Habib ; Bernabé, Eduardo ; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia ; Beyene, Tariku J ; Bhala, Neeraj ; Bhalla, Ashish ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A ; Bienhoff, Kelly ; Bikbov, Boris ; Biryukov, Stan ; Blore, Jed D ; Blosser, Christopher D ; Blyth, Fiona M ; Bohensky, Megan A ; Bolliger, Ian W ; Bora Başara, Berrak ; Bornstein, Natan M ; Bose, Dipan ; Boufous, Soufiane ; Bourne, Rupert R A ; Boyers, Lindsay N ; Brainin, Michael ; Brayne, Carol E ; Brazinova, Alexandra ; Breitborde, Nicholas J K ; Brenner, Hermann ; Briggs, Adam D ; Brooks, Peter ; Brown, Jonathan C ; Brugha, Traolach S ; Buchbinder, Rachelle ; Buckle, Geoffrey C ; Budke, Christine M ; Bulchis, Anne ; Bulloch, Andrew G ; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R ; Carabin, Hélène ; Carapetis, Jonathan R ; Cárdenas, Rosario ; Carpenter, David O ; Caso, Valeria ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A ; Castro, Ruben E ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Cavalleri, Fiorella ; Çavlin, Alanur ; Chadha, Vineet K ; Chang, Jung-Chen ; Charlson, Fiona J ; Chen, Honglei ; Chen, Wanqing ; Chiang, Peggy P ; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel ; Chowdhury, Rajiv ; Christensen, Hanne ; Christophi, Costas A ; Cirillo, Massimo ; Coates, Matthew M ; Coffeng, Luc E ; Coggeshall, Megan S ; Colistro, Valentina ; Colquhoun, Samantha M ; Cooke, Graham S ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Cooper, Leslie T ; Coppola, Luis M ; Cortinovis, Monica ; Criqui, Michael H ; Crump, John A ; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia ; Danawi, Hadi ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Dansereau, Emily ; Dargan, Paul I ; Davey, Gail ; Davis, Adrian ; Davitoiu, Dragos V ; Dayama, Anand ; De Leo, Diego ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja ; Dellavalle, Robert P ; Deribe, Kebede ; Derrett, Sarah ; Des Jarlais, Don C ; Dessalegn, Muluken ; Dharmaratne, Samath D ; Dherani, Mukesh K ; Diaz-Torné, Cesar ; Dicker, Daniel ; Ding, Eric L ; Dokova, Klara ; Dorsey, E Ray ; Driscoll, Tim R ; Duan, Leilei ; Duber, Herbert C ; Ebel, Beth E ; Edmond, Karen M ; Elshrek, Yousef M ; Endres, Matthias ; Ermakov, Sergey P ; Erskine, Holly E ; Eshrati, Babak ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Estep, Kara ; Faraon, Emerito Jose A ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fay, Derek F ; Feigin, Valery L ; Felson, David T ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad ; Fernandes, Jefferson G ; Ferrari, Alize J ; Fitzmaurice, Christina ; Flaxman, Abraham D ; Fleming, Thomas D ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H ; Fowkes, F Gerry R ; Paleo, Urbano Fra ; Franklin, Richard C ; Fürst, Thomas ; Gabbe, Belinda ; Gaffikin, Lynne ; Gankpé, Fortuné G ; Geleijnse, Johanna M ; Gessner, Bradford D ; Gething, Peter ; Gibney, Katherine B ; Giroud, Maurice ; Giussani, Giorgia ; Gomez Dantes, Hector ; Gona, Philimon ; González-Medina, Diego ; Gosselin, Richard A ; Gotay, Carolyn C ; Goto, Atsushi ; Gouda, Hebe N ; Graetz, Nicholas ; Gugnani, Harish C ; Gupta, Rahul ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Gutiérrez, Reyna A ; Haagsma, Juanita ; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima ; Hagan, Holly ; Halasa, Yara A ; Hamadeh, Randah R ; Hamavid, Hannah ; Hammami, Mouhanad ; Hancock, Jamie ; Hankey, Graeme J ; Hansen, Gillian M ; Hao, Yuantao ; Harb, Hilda L ; Haro, Josep Maria ; Havmøller, Rasmus ; Hay, Simon I ; Hay, Roderick J ; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B ; Heuton, Kyle R ; Heydarpour, Pouria ; Higashi, Hideki ; Hijar, Martha ; Hoek, Hans W ; Hoffman, Howard J ; Hosgood, H Dean ; Hossain, Mazeda ; Hotez, Peter J ; Hoy, Damian G ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Hu, Guoqing ; Huang, Cheng ; Huang, John J ; Husseini, Abdullatif ; Huynh, Chantal ; Iannarone, Marissa L ; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard ; Innos, Kaire ; Inoue, Manami ; Islami, Farhad ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H ; Jarvis, Deborah L ; Jassal, Simerjot K ; Jee, Sun Ha ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; Jensen, Paul N ; Jha, Vivekanand ; Jiang, Guohong ; Jiang, Ying ; Jonas, Jost B ; Juel, Knud ; Kan, Haidong ; Karch, André ; Karema, Corine K ; Karimkhani, Chante ; Karthikeyan, Ganesan ; Kassebaum, Nicholas J ; Kaul, Anil ; Kawakami, Norito ; Kazanjan, Konstantin ; Kemp, Andrew H ; Kengne, Andre P ; Keren, Andre ; Khader, Yousef S ; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A ; Khan, Ejaz A ; Khan, Gulfaraz ; Khang, Young-Ho ; Kieling, Christian ; Kim, Daniel ; Kim, Sungroul ; Kim, Yunjin ; Kinfu, Yohannes ; Kinge, Jonas M ; Kivipelto, Miia ; Knibbs, Luke D ; Knudsen, Ann Kristin ; Kokubo, Yoshihiro ; Kosen, Soewarta ; Krishnaswami, Sanjay ; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy ; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu ; Kuipers, Ernst J ; Kulkarni, Chanda ; Kulkarni, Veena S ; Kumar, G Anil ; Kyu, Hmwe H ; Lai, Taavi ; Lalloo, Ratilal ; Lallukka, Tea ; Lam, Hilton ; Lan, Qing ; Lansingh, Van C ; Larsson, Anders ; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E B ; Leasher, Janet L ; Leigh, James ; Leung, Ricky ; Levitz, Carly E ; Li, Bin ; Li, Yichong ; Li, Yongmei ; Lim, Stephen S ; Lind, Maggie ; Lipshultz, Steven E ; Liu, Shiwei ; Liu, Yang ; Lloyd, Belinda K ; Lofgren, Katherine T ; Logroscino, Giancarlo ; Looker, Katharine J ; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie ; Lotufo, Paulo A ; Lozano, Rafael ; Lucas, Robyn M ; Lunevicius, Raimundas ; Lyons, Ronan A ; Ma, Stefan ; Macintyre, Michael F ; Mackay, Mark T ; Majdan, Marek ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Marcenes, Wagner ; Margolis, David J ; Margono, Christopher ; Marzan, Melvin B ; Masci, Joseph R ; Mashal, Mohammad T ; Matzopoulos, Richard ; Mayosi, Bongani M ; Mazorodze, Tasara T ; Mcgill, Neil W ; Mcgrath, John J ; Mckee, Martin ; Mclain, Abigail ; Meaney, Peter A ; Medina, Catalina ; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan ; Mekonnen, Wubegzier ; Melaku, Yohannes A ; Meltzer, Michele ; Memish, Ziad A ; Mensah, George A ; Meretoja, Atte ; Mhimbira, Francis A ; Micha, Renata ; Miller, Ted R ; Mills, Edward J ; Mitchell, Philip B ; Mock, Charles N ; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah ; Mohammad, Karzan A ; Mokdad, Ali H ; Mola, Glen L D ; Monasta, Lorenzo ; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C ; Montico, Marcella ; Montine, Thomas J ; Mooney, Meghan D ; Moore, Ami R ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Moran, Andrew E ; Mori, Rintaro ; Moschandreas, Joanna ; Moturi, Wilkister N ; Moyer, Madeline L ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Msemburi, William T ; Mueller, Ulrich O ; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru ; Mullany, Erin C ; Murdoch, Michele E ; Murray, Joseph ; Murthy, Kinnari S ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Naheed, Aliya ; Naidoo, Kovin S ; Naldi, Luigi ; Nand, Devina ; Nangia, Vinay ; Narayan, K M Venkat ; Nejjari, Chakib ; Neupane, Sudan P ; Newton, Charles R ; Ng, Marie ; Ngalesoni, Frida N ; Nguyen, Grant ; Nisar, Muhammad I ; Nolte, Sandra ; Norheim, Ole F ; Norman, Rosana E ; Norrving, Bo ; Nyakarahuka, Luke ; Oh, In-Hwan ; Ohkubo, Takayoshi ; Ohno, Summer L ; Olusanya, Bolajoko O ; Opio, John Nelson ; Ortblad, Katrina ; Ortiz, Alberto ; Pain, Amanda W ; Pandian, Jeyaraj D ; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A ; Papachristou, Christina ; Park, Eun-Kee ; Park, Jae-Hyun ; Patten, Scott B ; Patton, George C ; Paul, Vinod K ; Pavlin, Boris I ; Pearce, Neil ; Pereira, David M ; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio ; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando ; Perico, Norberto ; Pervaiz, Aslam ; Pesudovs, Konrad ; Peterson, Carrie B ; Petzold, Max ; Phillips, Michael R ; Phillips, Bryan K ; Phillips, David E ; Piel, Frédéric B ; Plass, Dietrich ; Poenaru, Dan ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Pope, Daniel ; Popova, Svetlana ; Poulton, Richie G ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj ; Prasad, Noela M ; Pullan, Rachel L ; Qato, Dima M ; Quistberg, D Alex ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi, Kazem ; Rahman, Sajjad U ; Raju, Murugesan ; Rana, Saleem M ; Razavi, Homie ; Reddy, K Srinath ; Refaat, Amany ; Remuzzi, Giuseppe ; Resnikoff, Serge ; Ribeiro, Antonio L ; Richardson, Lee ; Richardus, Jan Hendrik ; Roberts, D Allen ; Rojas-Rueda, David ; Ronfani, Luca ; Roth, Gregory A ; Rothenbacher, Dietrich ; Rothstein, David H ; Rowley, Jane T ; Roy, Nobhojit ; Ruhago, George M ; Saeedi, Mohammad Y ; Saha, Sukanta ; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali ; Sampson, Uchechukwu K A ; Sanabria, Juan R ; Sandar, Logan ; Santos, Itamar S ; Satpathy, Maheswar ; Sawhney, Monika ; Scarborough, Peter ; Schneider, Ione J ; Schöttker, Ben ; Schumacher, Austin E ; Schwebel, David C ; Scott, James G ; Seedat, Soraya ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G ; Serina, Peter T ; Servan-Mori, Edson E ; Shackelford, Katya A ; Shaheen, Amira ; Shahraz, Saeid ; Shamah Levy, Teresa ; Shangguan, Siyi ; She, Jun ; Sheikhbahaei, Sara ; Shi, Peilin ; Shibuya, Kenji ; Shinohara, Yukito ; Shiri, Rahman ; Shishani, Kawkab ; Shiue, Ivy ; Shrime, Mark G ; Sigfusdottir, Inga D ; Silberberg, Donald H ; Simard, Edgar P ; Sindi, Shireen ; Singh, Abhishek ; Singh, Jasvinder A ; Singh, Lavanya ; Skirbekk, Vegard ; Slepak, Erica Leigh ; Sliwa, Karen ; Soneji, Samir ; Søreide, Kjetil ; Soshnikov, Sergey ; Sposato, Luciano A ; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T ; Stanaway, Jeffrey D ; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki ; Stein, Dan J ; Stein, Murray B ; Steiner, Caitlyn ; Steiner, Timothy J ; Stevens, Antony ; Stewart, Andrea ; Stovner, Lars J ; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos ; Sunguya, Bruno F ; Swaminathan, Soumya ; Swaroop, Mamta ; Sykes, Bryan L ; Tabb, Karen M ; Takahashi, Ken ; Tandon, Nikhil ; Tanne, David ; Tanner, Marcel ; Tavakkoli, Mohammad ; Taylor, Hugh R ; Te Ao, Braden J ; Tediosi, Fabrizio ; Temesgen, Awoke M ; Templin, Tara ; Ten Have, Margreet ; Tenkorang, Eric Y ; Terkawi, Abdullah S ; Thomson, Blake ; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L ; Thrift, Amanda G ; Thurston, George D ; Tillmann, Taavi ; Tonelli, Marcello ; Topouzis, Fotis ; Toyoshima, Hideaki ; Traebert, Jefferson ; Tran, Bach X ; Trillini, Matias ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis ; Tuzcu, Emin M ; Uchendu, Uche S ; Ukwaja, Kingsley N ; Undurraga, Eduardo A ; Uzun, Selen B ; Van Brakel, Wim H ; Van De Vijver, Steven ; van Gool, Coen H ; Van Os, Jim ; Vasankari, Tommi J ; Venketasubramanian, N ; Violante, Francesco S ; Vlassov, Vasiliy V ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Wagner, Gregory R ; Wagner, Joseph ; Waller, Stephen G ; Wan, Xia ; Wang, Haidong ; Wang, Jianli ; Wang, Linhong ; Warouw, Tati S ; Weichenthal, Scott ; Weiderpass, Elisabete ; Weintraub, Robert G ; Wenzhi, Wang ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Westerman, Ronny ; Whiteford, Harvey A ; Wilkinson, James D ; Williams, Thomas N ; Wolfe, Charles D ; Wolock, Timothy M ; Woolf, Anthony D ; Wulf, Sarah ; Wurtz, Brittany ; Xu, Gelin ; Yan, Lijing L ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Ye, Pengpeng ; Yentür, Gökalp K ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Yoon, Seok-Jun ; Younis, Mustafa Z ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaki, Maysaa E ; Zhao, Yong ; Zheng, Yingfeng ; Zonies, David ; Zou, Xiaonong ; Salomon, Joshua A ; Lopez, Alan D ; Vos, Theo. / Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013 : quantifying the epidemiological transition. In: The Lancet. 2015 ; Vol. 386, No. 10009. pp. 2145-2191.

Bibtex

@article{49655f26845c477a827ef7958b2b148d,
title = "Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development.METHODS: We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95{\%} uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95{\%} UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time.FINDINGS: Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95{\%} UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6{\%} (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7{\%} (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50{\%} of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10{\%} of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries.INTERPRETATION: Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition--in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden--is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.",
keywords = "Aged, Chronic Disease, Communicable Diseases, Female, Global Health, Health Transition, Humans, Life Expectancy, Male, Middle Aged, Mortality, Premature, Quality-Adjusted Life Years, Socioeconomic Factors, Wounds and Injuries",
author = "Murray, {Christopher J L} and Barber, {Ryan M} and Foreman, {Kyle J} and {Abbasoglu Ozgoren}, Ayse and Foad Abd-Allah and Abera, {Semaw F} and Victor Aboyans and Abraham, {Jerry P} and Ibrahim Abubakar and Abu-Raddad, {Laith J} and Abu-Rmeileh, {Niveen M} and Tom Achoki and Ackerman, {Ilana N} and Zanfina Ademi and Adou, {Ars{\`e}ne K} and Adsuar, {Jos{\'e} C} and Ashkan Afshin and Agardh, {Emilie E} and Alam, {Sayed Saidul} and Deena Alasfoor and Albittar, {Mohammed I} and Alegretti, {Miguel A} and Alemu, {Zewdie A} and Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho and Samia Alhabib and Raghib Ali and Fran{\cc}ois Alla and Peter Allebeck and Almazroa, {Mohammad A} and Ubai Alsharif and Elena Alvarez and Nelson Alvis-Guzman and Amare, {Azmeraw T} and Ameh, {Emmanuel A} and Heresh Amini and Walid Ammar and Anderson, {H Ross} and Anderson, {Benjamin O} and Antonio, {Carl Abelardo T} and Palwasha Anwari and Johan Arnl{\"o}v and {Arsic Arsenijevic}, {Valentina S} and Al Artaman and Asghar, {Rana J} and Reza Assadi and Atkins, {Lydia S} and Avila, {Marco A} and Baffour Awuah and Bachman, {Victoria F} and Alaa Badawi and Bahit, {Maria C} and Kalpana Balakrishnan and Amitava Banerjee and Barker-Collo, {Suzanne L} and Simon Barquera and Lars Barregard and Barrero, {Lope H} and Arindam Basu and Sanjay Basu and Basulaiman, {Mohammed O} and Justin Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and Ettore Beghi and Tolesa Bekele and Bell, {Michelle L} and Corina Benjet and Bennett, {Derrick A} and Bensenor, {Isabela M} and Habib Benzian and Eduardo Bernab{\'e} and Amelia Bertozzi-Villa and Beyene, {Tariku J} and Neeraj Bhala and Ashish Bhalla and Bhutta, {Zulfiqar A} and Kelly Bienhoff and Boris Bikbov and Stan Biryukov and Blore, {Jed D} and Blosser, {Christopher D} and Blyth, {Fiona M} and Bohensky, {Megan A} and Bolliger, {Ian W} and {Bora Başara}, Berrak and Bornstein, {Natan M} and Dipan Bose and Soufiane Boufous and Bourne, {Rupert R A} and Boyers, {Lindsay N} and Michael Brainin and Brayne, {Carol E} and Alexandra Brazinova and Breitborde, {Nicholas J K} and Hermann Brenner and Briggs, {Adam D} and Peter Brooks and Brown, {Jonathan C} and Brugha, {Traolach S} and Rachelle Buchbinder and Buckle, {Geoffrey C} and Budke, {Christine M} and Anne Bulchis and Bulloch, {Andrew G} and Campos-Nonato, {Ismael R} and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Carabin and Carapetis, {Jonathan R} and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and Carpenter, {David O} and Valeria Caso and Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela, {Carlos A} and Castro, {Ruben E} and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Fiorella Cavalleri and Alanur {\cC}avlin and Chadha, {Vineet K} and Jung-Chen Chang and Charlson, {Fiona J} and Honglei Chen and Wanqing Chen and Chiang, {Peggy P} and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and Rajiv Chowdhury and Hanne Christensen and Christophi, {Costas A} and Massimo Cirillo and Coates, {Matthew M} and Coffeng, {Luc E} and Coggeshall, {Megan S} and Valentina Colistro and Colquhoun, {Samantha M} and Cooke, {Graham S} and Cyrus Cooper and Cooper, {Leslie T} and Coppola, {Luis M} and Monica Cortinovis and Criqui, {Michael H} and Crump, {John A} and Lucia Cuevas-Nasu and Hadi Danawi and Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona and Emily Dansereau and Dargan, {Paul I} and Gail Davey and Adrian Davis and Davitoiu, {Dragos V} and Anand Dayama and {De Leo}, Diego and Louisa Degenhardt and {Del Pozo-Cruz}, Borja and Dellavalle, {Robert P} and Kebede Deribe and Sarah Derrett and {Des Jarlais}, {Don C} and Muluken Dessalegn and Dharmaratne, {Samath D} and Dherani, {Mukesh K} and Cesar Diaz-Torn{\'e} and Daniel Dicker and Ding, {Eric L} and Klara Dokova and Dorsey, {E Ray} and Driscoll, {Tim R} and Leilei Duan and Duber, {Herbert C} and Ebel, {Beth E} and Edmond, {Karen M} and Elshrek, {Yousef M} and Matthias Endres and Ermakov, {Sergey P} and Erskine, {Holly E} and Babak Eshrati and Alireza Esteghamati and Kara Estep and Faraon, {Emerito Jose A} and Farshad Farzadfar and Fay, {Derek F} and Feigin, {Valery L} and Felson, {David T} and Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad and Fernandes, {Jefferson G} and Ferrari, {Alize J} and Christina Fitzmaurice and Flaxman, {Abraham D} and Fleming, {Thomas D} and Nataliya Foigt and Forouzanfar, {Mohammad H} and Fowkes, {F Gerry R} and Paleo, {Urbano Fra} and Franklin, {Richard C} and Thomas F{\"u}rst and Belinda Gabbe and Lynne Gaffikin and Gankp{\'e}, {Fortun{\'e} G} and Geleijnse, {Johanna M} and Gessner, {Bradford D} and Peter Gething and Gibney, {Katherine B} and Maurice Giroud and Giorgia Giussani and {Gomez Dantes}, Hector and Philimon Gona and Diego Gonz{\'a}lez-Medina and Gosselin, {Richard A} and Gotay, {Carolyn C} and Atsushi Goto and Gouda, {Hebe N} and Nicholas Graetz and Gugnani, {Harish C} and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and Guti{\'e}rrez, {Reyna A} and Juanita Haagsma and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Holly Hagan and Halasa, {Yara A} and Hamadeh, {Randah R} and Hannah Hamavid and Mouhanad Hammami and Jamie Hancock and Hankey, {Graeme J} and Hansen, {Gillian M} and Yuantao Hao and Harb, {Hilda L} and Haro, {Josep Maria} and Rasmus Havm{\o}ller and Hay, {Simon I} and Hay, {Roderick J} and Heredia-Pi, {Ileana B} and Heuton, {Kyle R} and Pouria Heydarpour and Hideki Higashi and Martha Hijar and Hoek, {Hans W} and Hoffman, {Howard J} and Hosgood, {H Dean} and Mazeda Hossain and Hotez, {Peter J} and Hoy, {Damian G} and Mohamed Hsairi and Guoqing Hu and Cheng Huang and Huang, {John J} and Abdullatif Husseini and Chantal Huynh and Iannarone, {Marissa L} and Iburg, {Kim Moesgaard} and Kaire Innos and Manami Inoue and Farhad Islami and Jacobsen, {Kathryn H} and Jarvis, {Deborah L} and Jassal, {Simerjot K} and Jee, {Sun Ha} and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Jensen, {Paul N} and Vivekanand Jha and Guohong Jiang and Ying Jiang and Jonas, {Jost B} and Knud Juel and Haidong Kan and Andr{\'e} Karch and Karema, {Corine K} and Chante Karimkhani and Ganesan Karthikeyan and Kassebaum, {Nicholas J} and Anil Kaul and Norito Kawakami and Konstantin Kazanjan and Kemp, {Andrew H} and Kengne, {Andre P} and Andre Keren and Khader, {Yousef S} and Khalifa, {Shams Eldin A} and Khan, {Ejaz A} and Gulfaraz Khan and Young-Ho Khang and Christian Kieling and Daniel Kim and Sungroul Kim and Yunjin Kim and Yohannes Kinfu and Kinge, {Jonas M} and Miia Kivipelto and Knibbs, {Luke D} and Knudsen, {Ann Kristin} and Yoshihiro Kokubo and Soewarta Kosen and Sanjay Krishnaswami and {Kuate Defo}, Barthelemy and {Kucuk Bicer}, Burcu and Kuipers, {Ernst J} and Chanda Kulkarni and Kulkarni, {Veena S} and Kumar, {G Anil} and Kyu, {Hmwe H} and Taavi Lai and Ratilal Lalloo and Tea Lallukka and Hilton Lam and Qing Lan and Lansingh, {Van C} and Anders Larsson and Lawrynowicz, {Alicia E B} and Leasher, {Janet L} and James Leigh and Ricky Leung and Levitz, {Carly E} and Bin Li and Yichong Li and Yongmei Li and Lim, {Stephen S} and Maggie Lind and Lipshultz, {Steven E} and Shiwei Liu and Yang Liu and Lloyd, {Belinda K} and Lofgren, {Katherine T} and Giancarlo Logroscino and Looker, {Katharine J} and Joannie Lortet-Tieulent and Lotufo, {Paulo A} and Rafael Lozano and Lucas, {Robyn M} and Raimundas Lunevicius and Lyons, {Ronan A} and Stefan Ma and Macintyre, {Michael F} and Mackay, {Mark T} and Marek Majdan and Reza Malekzadeh and Wagner Marcenes and Margolis, {David J} and Christopher Margono and Marzan, {Melvin B} and Masci, {Joseph R} and Mashal, {Mohammad T} and Richard Matzopoulos and Mayosi, {Bongani M} and Mazorodze, {Tasara T} and Mcgill, {Neil W} and Mcgrath, {John J} and Martin Mckee and Abigail Mclain and Meaney, {Peter A} and Catalina Medina and Mehndiratta, {Man Mohan} and Wubegzier Mekonnen and Melaku, {Yohannes A} and Michele Meltzer and Memish, {Ziad A} and Mensah, {George A} and Atte Meretoja and Mhimbira, {Francis A} and Renata Micha and Miller, {Ted R} and Mills, {Edward J} and Mitchell, {Philip B} and Mock, {Charles N} and {Mohamed Ibrahim}, Norlinah and Mohammad, {Karzan A} and Mokdad, {Ali H} and Mola, {Glen L D} and Lorenzo Monasta and {Monta{\~n}ez Hernandez}, {Julio C} and Marcella Montico and Montine, {Thomas J} and Mooney, {Meghan D} and Moore, {Ami R} and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Moran, {Andrew E} and Rintaro Mori and Joanna Moschandreas and Moturi, {Wilkister N} and Moyer, {Madeline L} and Dariush Mozaffarian and Msemburi, {William T} and Mueller, {Ulrich O} and Mitsuru Mukaigawara and Mullany, {Erin C} and Murdoch, {Michele E} and Joseph Murray and Murthy, {Kinnari S} and Mohsen Naghavi and Aliya Naheed and Naidoo, {Kovin S} and Luigi Naldi and Devina Nand and Vinay Nangia and Narayan, {K M Venkat} and Chakib Nejjari and Neupane, {Sudan P} and Newton, {Charles R} and Marie Ng and Ngalesoni, {Frida N} and Grant Nguyen and Nisar, {Muhammad I} and Sandra Nolte and Norheim, {Ole F} and Norman, {Rosana E} and Bo Norrving and Luke Nyakarahuka and In-Hwan Oh and Takayoshi Ohkubo and Ohno, {Summer L} and Olusanya, {Bolajoko O} and Opio, {John Nelson} and Katrina Ortblad and Alberto Ortiz and Pain, {Amanda W} and Pandian, {Jeyaraj D} and Panelo, {Carlo Irwin A} and Christina Papachristou and Eun-Kee Park and Jae-Hyun Park and Patten, {Scott B} and Patton, {George C} and Paul, {Vinod K} and Pavlin, {Boris I} and Neil Pearce and Pereira, {David M} and Rogelio Perez-Padilla and Fernando Perez-Ruiz and Norberto Perico and Aslam Pervaiz and Konrad Pesudovs and Peterson, {Carrie B} and Max Petzold and Phillips, {Michael R} and Phillips, {Bryan K} and Phillips, {David E} and Piel, {Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric B} and Dietrich Plass and Dan Poenaru and Suzanne Polinder and Daniel Pope and Svetlana Popova and Poulton, {Richie G} and Farshad Pourmalek and Dorairaj Prabhakaran and Prasad, {Noela M} and Pullan, {Rachel L} and Qato, {Dima M} and Quistberg, {D Alex} and Anwar Rafay and Kazem Rahimi and Rahman, {Sajjad U} and Murugesan Raju and Rana, {Saleem M} and Homie Razavi and Reddy, {K Srinath} and Amany Refaat and Giuseppe Remuzzi and Serge Resnikoff and Ribeiro, {Antonio L} and Lee Richardson and Richardus, {Jan Hendrik} and Roberts, {D Allen} and David Rojas-Rueda and Luca Ronfani and Roth, {Gregory A} and Dietrich Rothenbacher and Rothstein, {David H} and Rowley, {Jane T} and Nobhojit Roy and Ruhago, {George M} and Saeedi, {Mohammad Y} and Sukanta Saha and Sahraian, {Mohammad Ali} and Sampson, {Uchechukwu K A} and Sanabria, {Juan R} and Logan Sandar and Santos, {Itamar S} and Maheswar Satpathy and Monika Sawhney and Peter Scarborough and Schneider, {Ione J} and Ben Sch{\"o}ttker and Schumacher, {Austin E} and Schwebel, {David C} and Scott, {James G} and Soraya Seedat and Sepanlou, {Sadaf G} and Serina, {Peter T} and Servan-Mori, {Edson E} and Shackelford, {Katya A} and Amira Shaheen and Saeid Shahraz and {Shamah Levy}, Teresa and Siyi Shangguan and Jun She and Sara Sheikhbahaei and Peilin Shi and Kenji Shibuya and Yukito Shinohara and Rahman Shiri and Kawkab Shishani and Ivy Shiue and Shrime, {Mark G} and Sigfusdottir, {Inga D} and Silberberg, {Donald H} and Simard, {Edgar P} and Shireen Sindi and Abhishek Singh and Singh, {Jasvinder A} and Lavanya Singh and Vegard Skirbekk and Slepak, {Erica Leigh} and Karen Sliwa and Samir Soneji and Kjetil S{\o}reide and Sergey Soshnikov and Sposato, {Luciano A} and Sreeramareddy, {Chandrashekhar T} and Stanaway, {Jeffrey D} and Vasiliki Stathopoulou and Stein, {Dan J} and Stein, {Murray B} and Caitlyn Steiner and Steiner, {Timothy J} and Antony Stevens and Andrea Stewart and Stovner, {Lars J} and Konstantinos Stroumpoulis and Sunguya, {Bruno F} and Soumya Swaminathan and Mamta Swaroop and Sykes, {Bryan L} and Tabb, {Karen M} and Ken Takahashi and Nikhil Tandon and David Tanne and Marcel Tanner and Mohammad Tavakkoli and Taylor, {Hugh R} and {Te Ao}, {Braden J} and Fabrizio Tediosi and Temesgen, {Awoke M} and Tara Templin and {Ten Have}, Margreet and Tenkorang, {Eric Y} and Terkawi, {Abdullah S} and Blake Thomson and Thorne-Lyman, {Andrew L} and Thrift, {Amanda G} and Thurston, {George D} and Taavi Tillmann and Marcello Tonelli and Fotis Topouzis and Hideaki Toyoshima and Jefferson Traebert and Tran, {Bach X} and Matias Trillini and Thomas Truelsen and Miltiadis Tsilimbaris and Tuzcu, {Emin M} and Uchendu, {Uche S} and Ukwaja, {Kingsley N} and Undurraga, {Eduardo A} and Uzun, {Selen B} and {Van Brakel}, {Wim H} and {Van De Vijver}, Steven and {van Gool}, {Coen H} and {Van Os}, Jim and Vasankari, {Tommi J} and N Venketasubramanian and Violante, {Francesco S} and Vlassov, {Vasiliy V} and Vollset, {Stein Emil} and Wagner, {Gregory R} and Joseph Wagner and Waller, {Stephen G} and Xia Wan and Haidong Wang and Jianli Wang and Linhong Wang and Warouw, {Tati S} and Scott Weichenthal and Elisabete Weiderpass and Weintraub, {Robert G} and Wang Wenzhi and Andrea Werdecker and Ronny Westerman and Whiteford, {Harvey A} and Wilkinson, {James D} and Williams, {Thomas N} and Wolfe, {Charles D} and Wolock, {Timothy M} and Woolf, {Anthony D} and Sarah Wulf and Brittany Wurtz and Gelin Xu and Yan, {Lijing L} and Yuichiro Yano and Pengpeng Ye and Yent{\"u}r, {G{\"o}kalp K} and Paul Yip and Naohiro Yonemoto and Seok-Jun Yoon and Younis, {Mustafa Z} and Chuanhua Yu and Zaki, {Maysaa E} and Yong Zhao and Yingfeng Zheng and David Zonies and Xiaonong Zou and Salomon, {Joshua A} and Lopez, {Alan D} and Theo Vos",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2015",
month = "11",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X",
language = "English",
volume = "386",
pages = "2145--2191",
journal = "Lancet",
issn = "0140-6736",
publisher = "TheLancet Publishing Group",
number = "10009",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013

T2 - quantifying the epidemiological transition

AU - Murray, Christopher J L

AU - Barber, Ryan M

AU - Foreman, Kyle J

AU - Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse

AU - Abd-Allah, Foad

AU - Abera, Semaw F

AU - Aboyans, Victor

AU - Abraham, Jerry P

AU - Abubakar, Ibrahim

AU - Abu-Raddad, Laith J

AU - Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M

AU - Achoki, Tom

AU - Ackerman, Ilana N

AU - Ademi, Zanfina

AU - Adou, Arsène K

AU - Adsuar, José C

AU - Afshin, Ashkan

AU - Agardh, Emilie E

AU - Alam, Sayed Saidul

AU - Alasfoor, Deena

AU - Albittar, Mohammed I

AU - Alegretti, Miguel A

AU - Alemu, Zewdie A

AU - Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael

AU - Alhabib, Samia

AU - Ali, Raghib

AU - Alla, François

AU - Allebeck, Peter

AU - Almazroa, Mohammad A

AU - Alsharif, Ubai

AU - Alvarez, Elena

AU - Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

AU - Amare, Azmeraw T

AU - Ameh, Emmanuel A

AU - Amini, Heresh

AU - Ammar, Walid

AU - Anderson, H Ross

AU - Anderson, Benjamin O

AU - Antonio, Carl Abelardo T

AU - Anwari, Palwasha

AU - Arnlöv, Johan

AU - Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S

AU - Artaman, Al

AU - Asghar, Rana J

AU - Assadi, Reza

AU - Atkins, Lydia S

AU - Avila, Marco A

AU - Awuah, Baffour

AU - Bachman, Victoria F

AU - Badawi, Alaa

AU - Bahit, Maria C

AU - Balakrishnan, Kalpana

AU - Banerjee, Amitava

AU - Barker-Collo, Suzanne L

AU - Barquera, Simon

AU - Barregard, Lars

AU - Barrero, Lope H

AU - Basu, Arindam

AU - Basu, Sanjay

AU - Basulaiman, Mohammed O

AU - Beardsley, Justin

AU - Bedi, Neeraj

AU - Beghi, Ettore

AU - Bekele, Tolesa

AU - Bell, Michelle L

AU - Benjet, Corina

AU - Bennett, Derrick A

AU - Bensenor, Isabela M

AU - Benzian, Habib

AU - Bernabé, Eduardo

AU - Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia

AU - Beyene, Tariku J

AU - Bhala, Neeraj

AU - Bhalla, Ashish

AU - Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

AU - Bienhoff, Kelly

AU - Bikbov, Boris

AU - Biryukov, Stan

AU - Blore, Jed D

AU - Blosser, Christopher D

AU - Blyth, Fiona M

AU - Bohensky, Megan A

AU - Bolliger, Ian W

AU - Bora Başara, Berrak

AU - Bornstein, Natan M

AU - Bose, Dipan

AU - Boufous, Soufiane

AU - Bourne, Rupert R A

AU - Boyers, Lindsay N

AU - Brainin, Michael

AU - Brayne, Carol E

AU - Brazinova, Alexandra

AU - Breitborde, Nicholas J K

AU - Brenner, Hermann

AU - Briggs, Adam D

AU - Brooks, Peter

AU - Brown, Jonathan C

AU - Brugha, Traolach S

AU - Buchbinder, Rachelle

AU - Buckle, Geoffrey C

AU - Budke, Christine M

AU - Bulchis, Anne

AU - Bulloch, Andrew G

AU - Campos-Nonato, Ismael R

AU - Carabin, Hélène

AU - Carapetis, Jonathan R

AU - Cárdenas, Rosario

AU - Carpenter, David O

AU - Caso, Valeria

AU - Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A

AU - Castro, Ruben E

AU - Catalá-López, Ferrán

AU - Cavalleri, Fiorella

AU - Çavlin, Alanur

AU - Chadha, Vineet K

AU - Chang, Jung-Chen

AU - Charlson, Fiona J

AU - Chen, Honglei

AU - Chen, Wanqing

AU - Chiang, Peggy P

AU - Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel

AU - Chowdhury, Rajiv

AU - Christensen, Hanne

AU - Christophi, Costas A

AU - Cirillo, Massimo

AU - Coates, Matthew M

AU - Coffeng, Luc E

AU - Coggeshall, Megan S

AU - Colistro, Valentina

AU - Colquhoun, Samantha M

AU - Cooke, Graham S

AU - Cooper, Cyrus

AU - Cooper, Leslie T

AU - Coppola, Luis M

AU - Cortinovis, Monica

AU - Criqui, Michael H

AU - Crump, John A

AU - Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia

AU - Danawi, Hadi

AU - Dandona, Lalit

AU - Dandona, Rakhi

AU - Dansereau, Emily

AU - Dargan, Paul I

AU - Davey, Gail

AU - Davis, Adrian

AU - Davitoiu, Dragos V

AU - Dayama, Anand

AU - De Leo, Diego

AU - Degenhardt, Louisa

AU - Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja

AU - Dellavalle, Robert P

AU - Deribe, Kebede

AU - Derrett, Sarah

AU - Des Jarlais, Don C

AU - Dessalegn, Muluken

AU - Dharmaratne, Samath D

AU - Dherani, Mukesh K

AU - Diaz-Torné, Cesar

AU - Dicker, Daniel

AU - Ding, Eric L

AU - Dokova, Klara

AU - Dorsey, E Ray

AU - Driscoll, Tim R

AU - Duan, Leilei

AU - Duber, Herbert C

AU - Ebel, Beth E

AU - Edmond, Karen M

AU - Elshrek, Yousef M

AU - Endres, Matthias

AU - Ermakov, Sergey P

AU - Erskine, Holly E

AU - Eshrati, Babak

AU - Esteghamati, Alireza

AU - Estep, Kara

AU - Faraon, Emerito Jose A

AU - Farzadfar, Farshad

AU - Fay, Derek F

AU - Feigin, Valery L

AU - Felson, David T

AU - Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad

AU - Fernandes, Jefferson G

AU - Ferrari, Alize J

AU - Fitzmaurice, Christina

AU - Flaxman, Abraham D

AU - Fleming, Thomas D

AU - Foigt, Nataliya

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad H

AU - Fowkes, F Gerry R

AU - Paleo, Urbano Fra

AU - Franklin, Richard C

AU - Fürst, Thomas

AU - Gabbe, Belinda

AU - Gaffikin, Lynne

AU - Gankpé, Fortuné G

AU - Geleijnse, Johanna M

AU - Gessner, Bradford D

AU - Gething, Peter

AU - Gibney, Katherine B

AU - Giroud, Maurice

AU - Giussani, Giorgia

AU - Gomez Dantes, Hector

AU - Gona, Philimon

AU - González-Medina, Diego

AU - Gosselin, Richard A

AU - Gotay, Carolyn C

AU - Goto, Atsushi

AU - Gouda, Hebe N

AU - Graetz, Nicholas

AU - Gugnani, Harish C

AU - Gupta, Rahul

AU - Gupta, Rajeev

AU - Gutiérrez, Reyna A

AU - Haagsma, Juanita

AU - Hafezi-Nejad, Nima

AU - Hagan, Holly

AU - Halasa, Yara A

AU - Hamadeh, Randah R

AU - Hamavid, Hannah

AU - Hammami, Mouhanad

AU - Hancock, Jamie

AU - Hankey, Graeme J

AU - Hansen, Gillian M

AU - Hao, Yuantao

AU - Harb, Hilda L

AU - Haro, Josep Maria

AU - Havmøller, Rasmus

AU - Hay, Simon I

AU - Hay, Roderick J

AU - Heredia-Pi, Ileana B

AU - Heuton, Kyle R

AU - Heydarpour, Pouria

AU - Higashi, Hideki

AU - Hijar, Martha

AU - Hoek, Hans W

AU - Hoffman, Howard J

AU - Hosgood, H Dean

AU - Hossain, Mazeda

AU - Hotez, Peter J

AU - Hoy, Damian G

AU - Hsairi, Mohamed

AU - Hu, Guoqing

AU - Huang, Cheng

AU - Huang, John J

AU - Husseini, Abdullatif

AU - Huynh, Chantal

AU - Iannarone, Marissa L

AU - Iburg, Kim Moesgaard

AU - Innos, Kaire

AU - Inoue, Manami

AU - Islami, Farhad

AU - Jacobsen, Kathryn H

AU - Jarvis, Deborah L

AU - Jassal, Simerjot K

AU - Jee, Sun Ha

AU - Jeemon, Panniyammakal

AU - Jensen, Paul N

AU - Jha, Vivekanand

AU - Jiang, Guohong

AU - Jiang, Ying

AU - Jonas, Jost B

AU - Juel, Knud

AU - Kan, Haidong

AU - Karch, André

AU - Karema, Corine K

AU - Karimkhani, Chante

AU - Karthikeyan, Ganesan

AU - Kassebaum, Nicholas J

AU - Kaul, Anil

AU - Kawakami, Norito

AU - Kazanjan, Konstantin

AU - Kemp, Andrew H

AU - Kengne, Andre P

AU - Keren, Andre

AU - Khader, Yousef S

AU - Khalifa, Shams Eldin A

AU - Khan, Ejaz A

AU - Khan, Gulfaraz

AU - Khang, Young-Ho

AU - Kieling, Christian

AU - Kim, Daniel

AU - Kim, Sungroul

AU - Kim, Yunjin

AU - Kinfu, Yohannes

AU - Kinge, Jonas M

AU - Kivipelto, Miia

AU - Knibbs, Luke D

AU - Knudsen, Ann Kristin

AU - Kokubo, Yoshihiro

AU - Kosen, Soewarta

AU - Krishnaswami, Sanjay

AU - Kuate Defo, Barthelemy

AU - Kucuk Bicer, Burcu

AU - Kuipers, Ernst J

AU - Kulkarni, Chanda

AU - Kulkarni, Veena S

AU - Kumar, G Anil

AU - Kyu, Hmwe H

AU - Lai, Taavi

AU - Lalloo, Ratilal

AU - Lallukka, Tea

AU - Lam, Hilton

AU - Lan, Qing

AU - Lansingh, Van C

AU - Larsson, Anders

AU - Lawrynowicz, Alicia E B

AU - Leasher, Janet L

AU - Leigh, James

AU - Leung, Ricky

AU - Levitz, Carly E

AU - Li, Bin

AU - Li, Yichong

AU - Li, Yongmei

AU - Lim, Stephen S

AU - Lind, Maggie

AU - Lipshultz, Steven E

AU - Liu, Shiwei

AU - Liu, Yang

AU - Lloyd, Belinda K

AU - Lofgren, Katherine T

AU - Logroscino, Giancarlo

AU - Looker, Katharine J

AU - Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie

AU - Lotufo, Paulo A

AU - Lozano, Rafael

AU - Lucas, Robyn M

AU - Lunevicius, Raimundas

AU - Lyons, Ronan A

AU - Ma, Stefan

AU - Macintyre, Michael F

AU - Mackay, Mark T

AU - Majdan, Marek

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Marcenes, Wagner

AU - Margolis, David J

AU - Margono, Christopher

AU - Marzan, Melvin B

AU - Masci, Joseph R

AU - Mashal, Mohammad T

AU - Matzopoulos, Richard

AU - Mayosi, Bongani M

AU - Mazorodze, Tasara T

AU - Mcgill, Neil W

AU - Mcgrath, John J

AU - Mckee, Martin

AU - Mclain, Abigail

AU - Meaney, Peter A

AU - Medina, Catalina

AU - Mehndiratta, Man Mohan

AU - Mekonnen, Wubegzier

AU - Melaku, Yohannes A

AU - Meltzer, Michele

AU - Memish, Ziad A

AU - Mensah, George A

AU - Meretoja, Atte

AU - Mhimbira, Francis A

AU - Micha, Renata

AU - Miller, Ted R

AU - Mills, Edward J

AU - Mitchell, Philip B

AU - Mock, Charles N

AU - Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah

AU - Mohammad, Karzan A

AU - Mokdad, Ali H

AU - Mola, Glen L D

AU - Monasta, Lorenzo

AU - Montañez Hernandez, Julio C

AU - Montico, Marcella

AU - Montine, Thomas J

AU - Mooney, Meghan D

AU - Moore, Ami R

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - Moran, Andrew E

AU - Mori, Rintaro

AU - Moschandreas, Joanna

AU - Moturi, Wilkister N

AU - Moyer, Madeline L

AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush

AU - Msemburi, William T

AU - Mueller, Ulrich O

AU - Mukaigawara, Mitsuru

AU - Mullany, Erin C

AU - Murdoch, Michele E

AU - Murray, Joseph

AU - Murthy, Kinnari S

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Naheed, Aliya

AU - Naidoo, Kovin S

AU - Naldi, Luigi

AU - Nand, Devina

AU - Nangia, Vinay

AU - Narayan, K M Venkat

AU - Nejjari, Chakib

AU - Neupane, Sudan P

AU - Newton, Charles R

AU - Ng, Marie

AU - Ngalesoni, Frida N

AU - Nguyen, Grant

AU - Nisar, Muhammad I

AU - Nolte, Sandra

AU - Norheim, Ole F

AU - Norman, Rosana E

AU - Norrving, Bo

AU - Nyakarahuka, Luke

AU - Oh, In-Hwan

AU - Ohkubo, Takayoshi

AU - Ohno, Summer L

AU - Olusanya, Bolajoko O

AU - Opio, John Nelson

AU - Ortblad, Katrina

AU - Ortiz, Alberto

AU - Pain, Amanda W

AU - Pandian, Jeyaraj D

AU - Panelo, Carlo Irwin A

AU - Papachristou, Christina

AU - Park, Eun-Kee

AU - Park, Jae-Hyun

AU - Patten, Scott B

AU - Patton, George C

AU - Paul, Vinod K

AU - Pavlin, Boris I

AU - Pearce, Neil

AU - Pereira, David M

AU - Perez-Padilla, Rogelio

AU - Perez-Ruiz, Fernando

AU - Perico, Norberto

AU - Pervaiz, Aslam

AU - Pesudovs, Konrad

AU - Peterson, Carrie B

AU - Petzold, Max

AU - Phillips, Michael R

AU - Phillips, Bryan K

AU - Phillips, David E

AU - Piel, Frédéric B

AU - Plass, Dietrich

AU - Poenaru, Dan

AU - Polinder, Suzanne

AU - Pope, Daniel

AU - Popova, Svetlana

AU - Poulton, Richie G

AU - Pourmalek, Farshad

AU - Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

AU - Prasad, Noela M

AU - Pullan, Rachel L

AU - Qato, Dima M

AU - Quistberg, D Alex

AU - Rafay, Anwar

AU - Rahimi, Kazem

AU - Rahman, Sajjad U

AU - Raju, Murugesan

AU - Rana, Saleem M

AU - Razavi, Homie

AU - Reddy, K Srinath

AU - Refaat, Amany

AU - Remuzzi, Giuseppe

AU - Resnikoff, Serge

AU - Ribeiro, Antonio L

AU - Richardson, Lee

AU - Richardus, Jan Hendrik

AU - Roberts, D Allen

AU - Rojas-Rueda, David

AU - Ronfani, Luca

AU - Roth, Gregory A

AU - Rothenbacher, Dietrich

AU - Rothstein, David H

AU - Rowley, Jane T

AU - Roy, Nobhojit

AU - Ruhago, George M

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N1 - Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2015/11/28

Y1 - 2015/11/28

N2 - BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development.METHODS: We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time.FINDINGS: Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries.INTERPRETATION: Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition--in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden--is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

AB - BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development.METHODS: We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time.FINDINGS: Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries.INTERPRETATION: Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition--in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden--is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

KW - Aged

KW - Chronic Disease

KW - Communicable Diseases

KW - Female

KW - Global Health

KW - Health Transition

KW - Humans

KW - Life Expectancy

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Mortality, Premature

KW - Quality-Adjusted Life Years

KW - Socioeconomic Factors

KW - Wounds and Injuries

U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X

DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 26321261

VL - 386

SP - 2145

EP - 2191

JO - Lancet

JF - Lancet

SN - 0140-6736

IS - 10009

ER -

ID: 161693697