Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries. / Legrand, Sara-Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy; Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Hels, Tove; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Favretto, Donata; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Caplinskiene, Marija; Minkuviene, Zita; Pauliukevicius, Alvydas; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, René; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Langel, Kaarina; Blencowe, Tom; Verstrate, Alain G.

In: Drug Testing and Analysis, Vol. 5, No. 3, 03.2013, p. 156-165.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Legrand, S-A, Isalberti, C, Van der Linden, T, Bernhoft, IM, Hels, T, Simonsen, KW, Favretto, D, Ferrara, SD, Caplinskiene, M, Minkuviene, Z, Pauliukevicius, A, Houwing, S, Mathijssen, R, Lillsunde, P, Langel, K, Blencowe, T & Verstrate, AG 2013, 'Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries', Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 156-165.

APA

Legrand, S-A., Isalberti, C., Van der Linden, T., Bernhoft, I. M., Hels, T., Simonsen, K. W., ... Verstrate, A. G. (2013). Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries. Drug Testing and Analysis, 5(3), 156-165.

Vancouver

Legrand S-A, Isalberti C, Van der Linden T, Bernhoft IM, Hels T, Simonsen KW et al. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries. Drug Testing and Analysis. 2013 Mar;5(3):156-165.

Author

Legrand, Sara-Ann ; Isalberti, Cristina ; Van der Linden, Trudy ; Bernhoft, Inger Marie ; Hels, Tove ; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese ; Favretto, Donata ; Ferrara, Santo Davide ; Caplinskiene, Marija ; Minkuviene, Zita ; Pauliukevicius, Alvydas ; Houwing, Sjoerd ; Mathijssen, René ; Lillsunde, Pirjo ; Langel, Kaarina ; Blencowe, Tom ; Verstrate, Alain G. / Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries. In: Drug Testing and Analysis. 2013 ; Vol. 5, No. 3. pp. 156-165.

Bibtex

@article{dc10c2d1472644f29a20ab49c2c4e52d,
title = "Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries",
abstract = "The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands, between 2007 and 2010. Toxicological analysis was performed with chromatographic techniques on whole blood for 23 substances. The percentage of drivers positive for at least one psychoactive substance ranged between 28{\%} (Lithuania) and 53{\%} (Belgium). Alcohol (=0.1 g/L) was the most common finding with the highest percentage in Belgium (42.5{\%}). Among the alcohol-positive drivers, 90.5{\%} had a blood alcohol count (BAC) =0.5 g/L and 65.7{\%} had a BAC =1.3 g/L. Benzodiazepines (0.0–10.2{\%}) and medicinal opioids (0.5–7.8{\%}) were the most prevailing medicinal drugs, but half of the concentrations were lower than therapeutic. Cannabis (0.5–7.6{\%}) was the most prevailing illicit drug. Alcohol was found in combination with drugs in 2.3-13.2{\%} of the drivers. Drug combinations were found in 0.5–4.3{\%} of the drivers. This study confirms the high prevalence of psychoactive substances in injured drivers, but we observed large differences between the participating countries. Alcohol was the most common finding, followed by cannabis and benzodiazepines. Notable are the many drivers having a BAC = 1.3 g/L. The majority of the substances were found in combination with another psychoactive substance, mostly alcohol. The high prevalence of high BACs and combinations (compared to roadside surveys) suggest that those drivers are most at risk and that preventive actions should target them preferentially.",
keywords = "Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Prevalence alcohol, psychoactive substances, Injured drivers, Europe",
author = "Sara-Ann Legrand and Cristina Isalberti and {Van der Linden}, Trudy and Bernhoft, {Inger Marie} and Tove Hels and Simonsen, {Kirsten Wiese} and Donata Favretto and Ferrara, {Santo Davide} and Marija Caplinskiene and Zita Minkuviene and Alvydas Pauliukevicius and Sjoerd Houwing and Ren{\'e} Mathijssen and Pirjo Lillsunde and Kaarina Langel and Tom Blencowe and Verstrate, {Alain G.}",
year = "2013",
month = "3",
language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "156--165",
journal = "Drug Testing and Analysis",
issn = "1942-7603",
publisher = "JohnWiley & Sons Ltd",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries

AU - Legrand, Sara-Ann

AU - Isalberti, Cristina

AU - Van der Linden, Trudy

AU - Bernhoft, Inger Marie

AU - Hels, Tove

AU - Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

AU - Favretto, Donata

AU - Ferrara, Santo Davide

AU - Caplinskiene, Marija

AU - Minkuviene, Zita

AU - Pauliukevicius, Alvydas

AU - Houwing, Sjoerd

AU - Mathijssen, René

AU - Lillsunde, Pirjo

AU - Langel, Kaarina

AU - Blencowe, Tom

AU - Verstrate, Alain G.

PY - 2013/3

Y1 - 2013/3

N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands, between 2007 and 2010. Toxicological analysis was performed with chromatographic techniques on whole blood for 23 substances. The percentage of drivers positive for at least one psychoactive substance ranged between 28% (Lithuania) and 53% (Belgium). Alcohol (=0.1 g/L) was the most common finding with the highest percentage in Belgium (42.5%). Among the alcohol-positive drivers, 90.5% had a blood alcohol count (BAC) =0.5 g/L and 65.7% had a BAC =1.3 g/L. Benzodiazepines (0.0–10.2%) and medicinal opioids (0.5–7.8%) were the most prevailing medicinal drugs, but half of the concentrations were lower than therapeutic. Cannabis (0.5–7.6%) was the most prevailing illicit drug. Alcohol was found in combination with drugs in 2.3-13.2% of the drivers. Drug combinations were found in 0.5–4.3% of the drivers. This study confirms the high prevalence of psychoactive substances in injured drivers, but we observed large differences between the participating countries. Alcohol was the most common finding, followed by cannabis and benzodiazepines. Notable are the many drivers having a BAC = 1.3 g/L. The majority of the substances were found in combination with another psychoactive substance, mostly alcohol. The high prevalence of high BACs and combinations (compared to roadside surveys) suggest that those drivers are most at risk and that preventive actions should target them preferentially.

AB - The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands, between 2007 and 2010. Toxicological analysis was performed with chromatographic techniques on whole blood for 23 substances. The percentage of drivers positive for at least one psychoactive substance ranged between 28% (Lithuania) and 53% (Belgium). Alcohol (=0.1 g/L) was the most common finding with the highest percentage in Belgium (42.5%). Among the alcohol-positive drivers, 90.5% had a blood alcohol count (BAC) =0.5 g/L and 65.7% had a BAC =1.3 g/L. Benzodiazepines (0.0–10.2%) and medicinal opioids (0.5–7.8%) were the most prevailing medicinal drugs, but half of the concentrations were lower than therapeutic. Cannabis (0.5–7.6%) was the most prevailing illicit drug. Alcohol was found in combination with drugs in 2.3-13.2% of the drivers. Drug combinations were found in 0.5–4.3% of the drivers. This study confirms the high prevalence of psychoactive substances in injured drivers, but we observed large differences between the participating countries. Alcohol was the most common finding, followed by cannabis and benzodiazepines. Notable are the many drivers having a BAC = 1.3 g/L. The majority of the substances were found in combination with another psychoactive substance, mostly alcohol. The high prevalence of high BACs and combinations (compared to roadside surveys) suggest that those drivers are most at risk and that preventive actions should target them preferentially.

KW - Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

KW - Prevalence alcohol

KW - psychoactive substances

KW - Injured drivers

KW - Europe

M3 - Journal article

VL - 5

SP - 156

EP - 165

JO - Drug Testing and Analysis

JF - Drug Testing and Analysis

SN - 1942-7603

IS - 3

ER -

ID: 45663475