Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Renal Function: A Prospective Study With 9- to 16-Year Follow-up After Pregnancy
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OBJECTIVE: To examine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), independent of subsequent diabetes, is an early risk factor for renal impairment long term after the index pregnancy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Diabetes & Women's Health (DWH) study (2012-2016), we examined the independent and joint associations of GDM and subsequent diabetes with long-term renal function among 607 women with and 619 women without GDM in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) index pregnancy (1996-2002). At median follow-up of 13 years after the index pregnancy, serum creatinine (mg/dL) and urinary albumin (mg/L) and creatinine (mg/dL) were measured, from which estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) (mg/g) were derived.
RESULTS: Compared with women without GDM or subsequent diabetes, women with a GDM history had significantly higher eGFR even if they had not subsequently developed diabetes (adjusted β-coefficient [95% CI] = 3.3 [1.7, 5.0]). Women who had a GDM history and later developed diabetes (n = 183) also had significantly higher UACR [exponent β = 1.3 [95% CI 1.1, 1.6]) and an increased risk of elevated UACR (≥20 mg/g) [adjusted relative risk [95% CI] = 2.3 [1.1, 5.9]) compared with women with neither. After adjusting for potential confounders including prepregnancy BMI and hypertension, GDM without subsequent diabetes was not related to UACR.
CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM in pregnancy were more likely to show increased eGFR levels 9-16 years postpartum, which could indicate early stages of glomerular hyperfiltration and renal damage. However, only those who subsequently developed diabetes showed overt renal damage as evidenced by elevated UACR.
|Journal||Diabetes Care. Supplement|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2018|
- Adult, Creatinine/urine, Denmark/epidemiology, Diabetes, Gestational/blood, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Hypertension/epidemiology, Kidney/physiopathology, Kidney Diseases/epidemiology, Kidney Function Tests, Longitudinal Studies, Postpartum Period/physiology, Pregnancy, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology, Risk Factors