Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases. / McKenna, Mary C; Stridh, Malin H; McNair, Laura Frendrup; Sonnewald, Ursula; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Schousboe, Arne.

In: Journal of Neuroscience Research, Vol. 94, No. 12, 15.09.2016, p. 1561-1571.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

McKenna, MC, Stridh, MH, McNair, LF, Sonnewald, U, Waagepetersen, HS & Schousboe, A 2016, 'Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases', Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 1561-1571. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23908

APA

McKenna, M. C., Stridh, M. H., McNair, L. F., Sonnewald, U., Waagepetersen, H. S., & Schousboe, A. (2016). Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 94(12), 1561-1571. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23908

Vancouver

McKenna MC, Stridh MH, McNair LF, Sonnewald U, Waagepetersen HS, Schousboe A. Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2016 Sep 15;94(12):1561-1571. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23908

Author

McKenna, Mary C ; Stridh, Malin H ; McNair, Laura Frendrup ; Sonnewald, Ursula ; Waagepetersen, Helle S. ; Schousboe, Arne. / Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases. In: Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2016 ; Vol. 94, No. 12. pp. 1561-1571.

Bibtex

@article{2d3132b173c348798dcbf091364e5a63,
title = "Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases",
abstract = "The cellular distribution of transporters and enzymes related to glutamate metabolism led to the concept of the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Glutamate is released as a neurotransmitter and taken up primarily by astrocytes ensheathing the synapses. The glutamate carbon skeleton is transferred back to the presynaptic neurons as the nonexcitatory amino acid glutamine. The cycle was initially thought to function with a 1:1 ratio between glutamate released and glutamine taken up by neurons. However, studies of glutamate metabolism in astrocytes have shown that a considerable proportion of glutamate undergoes oxidative degradation; thus, quantitative formation of glutamine from the glutamate taken up is not possible. Oxidation of glutamate is initiated by transamination catalyzed by an aminotransferase, or oxidative deamination catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We discuss methods available to elucidate the enzymes that mediate this conversion. Methods include pharmacological tools such as the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid, studies using GDH knockout mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GDH in astrocytes. Studies in brain slices incubated with [15N]glutamate demonstrated activity of GDH in astrocytes in situ. These results, in conjunction with reports in the literature, support the conclusion that GDH is active in astrocytes both in culture and in vivo and that this enzyme plays a significant role in glutamate oxidation. Oxidative metabolism of glutamate, primarily mediated by GDH, but also by transamination by aspartate aminotransferase, provides considerably more energy than is required to maintain the activity of the high-affinity glutamate transporters needed for efficient removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft.",
keywords = "Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, cataplerosis, compartmentation, Energy metabolism, Mitochondria, Synaptosomes, Transporter",
author = "McKenna, {Mary C} and Stridh, {Malin H} and McNair, {Laura Frendrup} and Ursula Sonnewald and Waagepetersen, {Helle S.} and Arne Schousboe",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1002/jnr.23908",
language = "English",
volume = "94",
pages = "1561--1571",
journal = "Journal of Neuroscience Research",
issn = "0360-4012",
publisher = "JohnWiley & Sons, Inc.",
number = "12",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases

AU - McKenna, Mary C

AU - Stridh, Malin H

AU - McNair, Laura Frendrup

AU - Sonnewald, Ursula

AU - Waagepetersen, Helle S.

AU - Schousboe, Arne

PY - 2016/9/15

Y1 - 2016/9/15

N2 - The cellular distribution of transporters and enzymes related to glutamate metabolism led to the concept of the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Glutamate is released as a neurotransmitter and taken up primarily by astrocytes ensheathing the synapses. The glutamate carbon skeleton is transferred back to the presynaptic neurons as the nonexcitatory amino acid glutamine. The cycle was initially thought to function with a 1:1 ratio between glutamate released and glutamine taken up by neurons. However, studies of glutamate metabolism in astrocytes have shown that a considerable proportion of glutamate undergoes oxidative degradation; thus, quantitative formation of glutamine from the glutamate taken up is not possible. Oxidation of glutamate is initiated by transamination catalyzed by an aminotransferase, or oxidative deamination catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We discuss methods available to elucidate the enzymes that mediate this conversion. Methods include pharmacological tools such as the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid, studies using GDH knockout mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GDH in astrocytes. Studies in brain slices incubated with [15N]glutamate demonstrated activity of GDH in astrocytes in situ. These results, in conjunction with reports in the literature, support the conclusion that GDH is active in astrocytes both in culture and in vivo and that this enzyme plays a significant role in glutamate oxidation. Oxidative metabolism of glutamate, primarily mediated by GDH, but also by transamination by aspartate aminotransferase, provides considerably more energy than is required to maintain the activity of the high-affinity glutamate transporters needed for efficient removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft.

AB - The cellular distribution of transporters and enzymes related to glutamate metabolism led to the concept of the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Glutamate is released as a neurotransmitter and taken up primarily by astrocytes ensheathing the synapses. The glutamate carbon skeleton is transferred back to the presynaptic neurons as the nonexcitatory amino acid glutamine. The cycle was initially thought to function with a 1:1 ratio between glutamate released and glutamine taken up by neurons. However, studies of glutamate metabolism in astrocytes have shown that a considerable proportion of glutamate undergoes oxidative degradation; thus, quantitative formation of glutamine from the glutamate taken up is not possible. Oxidation of glutamate is initiated by transamination catalyzed by an aminotransferase, or oxidative deamination catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We discuss methods available to elucidate the enzymes that mediate this conversion. Methods include pharmacological tools such as the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid, studies using GDH knockout mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GDH in astrocytes. Studies in brain slices incubated with [15N]glutamate demonstrated activity of GDH in astrocytes in situ. These results, in conjunction with reports in the literature, support the conclusion that GDH is active in astrocytes both in culture and in vivo and that this enzyme plays a significant role in glutamate oxidation. Oxidative metabolism of glutamate, primarily mediated by GDH, but also by transamination by aspartate aminotransferase, provides considerably more energy than is required to maintain the activity of the high-affinity glutamate transporters needed for efficient removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft.

KW - Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

KW - cataplerosis

KW - compartmentation

KW - Energy metabolism

KW - Mitochondria

KW - Synaptosomes

KW - Transporter

U2 - 10.1002/jnr.23908

DO - 10.1002/jnr.23908

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 27629247

VL - 94

SP - 1561

EP - 1571

JO - Journal of Neuroscience Research

JF - Journal of Neuroscience Research

SN - 0360-4012

IS - 12

ER -

ID: 169169600