Long-term exposure to traffic noise and risk of incident colon cancer: A pooled study of eleven Nordic cohorts
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Background Colon cancer incidence is rising globally, and factors pertaining to urbanization have been proposed involved in this development. Traffic noise may increase colon cancer risk by causing sleep disturbance and stress, thereby inducing known colon cancer risk-factors, e.g. obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption, but few studies have examined this. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between traffic noise and colon cancer (all, proximal, distal) in a pooled population of 11 Nordic cohorts, totaling 155,203 persons. Methods We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise, as well as air pollution, for all addresses, using similar exposure models across cohorts. Colon cancer cases were identified through national registries. We analyzed data using Cox Proportional Hazards Models, adjusting main models for harmonized sociodemographic and lifestyle data. Results During follow-up (median 18.8 years), 2757 colon cancer cases developed. We found a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.10) per 10-dB higher 5-year mean time-weighted road traffic noise. In sub-type analyses, the association seemed confined to distal colon cancer: HR 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98-1.14). Railway and aircraft noise was not associated with colon cancer, albeit there was some indication in sub-type analyses that railway noise may also be associated with distal colon cancer. In interaction-analyses, the association between road traffic noise and colon cancer was strongest among obese persons and those with high NO 2-exposure. Discussion A prominent study strength is the large population with harmonized data across eleven cohorts, and the complete address-history during follow-up. However, each cohort estimated noise independently, and only at the most exposed façade, which may introduce exposure misclassification. Despite this, the results of this pooled study suggest that traffic noise may be a risk factor for colon cancer, especially of distal origin.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2023|
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