Models of care for non-communicable diseases for displaced populations in Iraq: a scoping review

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  • Benjamin Schmid
  • Éimhín Ansbro
  • Raju, Emmanuel
  • Ruth Willis
  • Nazar Shabila
  • Pablo Perel

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability globally. Their importance in humanitarian settings is increasingly recognised, but evidence about how best to address NCDs in these setting is limited. This scoping review aimed to explore models of NCD care for displaced populations in Iraq, in order to build evidence to design context adapted models of care. A search of key databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, EconLit, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Iraqi Academic Scientific Journals) was conducted and complemented with grey literature and snowballing searches. Documents were included if they referred to models of NCD care for displaced populations. We synthesised the data using a conceptual model of care framework. The findings were reported according to the PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews. We identified 4036 documents of which 22 were eligible for inclusion. Only six documents were peer-reviewed studies with most being internal reports, commentaries, or press releases. Of the 14 documents that reported on their methods, most applied quantitative approaches (n = 7), followed by mixed-methods (n = 5) and qualitative approaches (n = 2). Only one document reported on outcome data and none applied longitudinal study designs. Documents generally described individual framework dimensions, mostly centring around medicines, facility-based services, and selected access dimensions. Most dimensions had few or no references. The most common model for displaced populations in Iraq was primary-level centred care that complemented or supported existing-mostly tertiary-public health system structures. Additionally, private facilities played an important role and were frequently accessed by displaced populations in most settings. Quality of care, particularly patient-perceived quality, emerged as a critical factor for designing context-adapted models of NCD care. This review also identified a strong regionality of NCD care, particularly in terms of access rates and barriers. We concluded that there is a scarcity of evidence on the effectiveness of models of NCD care for displaced populations in Iraq, calling for capacity building initiatives focused on implementation research and evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalConflict and Health
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)40
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2022. The Author(s).

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