Phase angle measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and the risk of cardiovascular disease among adult Danes
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Objective: This study aimed to examine associations between phase angle (PhA) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in a healthy Danish subpopulation free of major chronic diseases. Methods: A random subset (n = 2601) of adult men and women born in 1922, 1932, 1942, and 1952 and examined in 1987 and 1988 were included, and followed over 24 y during which 643 men and 570 women developed CVD. Measures at baseline included age, weight, height, whole-body bioimpedance, from which PhA was calculated, and information on lifestyle, obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The association between PhA and incident CVD was assessed by Cox proportional hazard model with age as the underlying time scale and with additional adjustment for covariates. To explore nonlinear associations, all results were presented using restricted cubic splines, with the median value of PhA as the reference. Results: PhA was lower among women who later developed CVD than among women who did not (6.3 vs. 6.0; P < 0.001). The highest risk of CVD was observed at the 5th percentile (hazard ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.60). Among men, PhA was not significantly associated with risk of CVD (7.1 vs. 7.0; P = 0.246). Conclusions: Among apparently healthy Danish men and women, a lower PhA value was associated with a higher incidence of CVD over 24 y, also after adjusting for potential confounders, and particularly among women. These findings may encourage the future use of PhA as an additional index in predicting CVD. However, more studies are needed to confirm our results. (c) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
- Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Phase angle, Nutritional status, Incidence of cardiovascular disease, Adult Danes, HOSPITALIZED-PATIENTS, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, VECTOR ANALYSIS, BIOIMPEDANCE, DETERMINANTS, MORTALITY, HEALTHY, AGE