Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances. / Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, Inger Marie.

In: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 59, 10.2013, p. 346-356.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Hels, T, Lyckegaard, A, Simonsen, KW, Steentoft, A & Bernhoft, IM 2013, 'Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances', Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 59, pp. 346-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.06.003

APA

Hels, T., Lyckegaard, A., Simonsen, K. W., Steentoft, A., & Bernhoft, I. M. (2013). Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 59, 346-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.06.003

Vancouver

Hels T, Lyckegaard A, Simonsen KW, Steentoft A, Bernhoft IM. Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2013 Oct;59:346-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.06.003

Author

Hels, Tove ; Lyckegaard, Allan ; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese ; Steentoft, Anni ; Bernhoft, Inger Marie. / Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances. In: Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2013 ; Vol. 59. pp. 346-356.

Bibtex

@article{8453fbcd7ecd428f9b68faeee0355149,
title = "Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances",
abstract = "Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cannabis, illicit opiates, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, i.e. zolpidem and zopiclone, medicinal opioids, alcohol-drug combinations and drug-drug combinations). Data from six countries were included in the study: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and the Netherlands. Case samples (N=2,490) were collected from severely injured drivers of passenger cars or vans in selected hospitals in various regions of the countries. Control samples (N=15,832) were sampled in a uniform sampling scheme stratified according to country, time, road type and season. Relative risks were approximated by odds ratios and calculated by logistic regression. The estimates were adjusted for age, gender and country. The highest risk of the driver being severely injured was associated with driving positive for high concentrations of alcohol (≥ 0.8 g/L), alone or in combination with other psychoactive substances. For alcohol, risk increased exponentially with blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The second most risky category contained various drug-drug combinations, amphetamines and medicinal opioids. Medium increased risk was associated with medium sized BACs (at or above 0.5 g/L, below 0.8 g/L) and benzoylecgonine. The least risky drug seemed to be cannabis and benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. For male drivers, the risk of being severely injured by driving with any of the psychoactive substances was about 65{\%} of that of female drivers. For each of the substance groups there was a decrease in the risk of severe driver injury with increasing age. It is concluded that among psychoactive substances alcohol still poses the largest problem in terms of driver risk of getting injured.",
keywords = "Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, driving under the influence, driver injury risk, road accident, case-control design",
author = "Tove Hels and Allan Lyckegaard and Simonsen, {Kirsten Wiese} and Anni Steentoft and Bernhoft, {Inger Marie}",
year = "2013",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1016/j.aap.2013.06.003",
language = "English",
volume = "59",
pages = "346--356",
journal = "Accident Analysis & Prevention",
issn = "0001-4575",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

AU - Hels, Tove

AU - Lyckegaard, Allan

AU - Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

AU - Steentoft, Anni

AU - Bernhoft, Inger Marie

PY - 2013/10

Y1 - 2013/10

N2 - Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cannabis, illicit opiates, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, i.e. zolpidem and zopiclone, medicinal opioids, alcohol-drug combinations and drug-drug combinations). Data from six countries were included in the study: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and the Netherlands. Case samples (N=2,490) were collected from severely injured drivers of passenger cars or vans in selected hospitals in various regions of the countries. Control samples (N=15,832) were sampled in a uniform sampling scheme stratified according to country, time, road type and season. Relative risks were approximated by odds ratios and calculated by logistic regression. The estimates were adjusted for age, gender and country. The highest risk of the driver being severely injured was associated with driving positive for high concentrations of alcohol (≥ 0.8 g/L), alone or in combination with other psychoactive substances. For alcohol, risk increased exponentially with blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The second most risky category contained various drug-drug combinations, amphetamines and medicinal opioids. Medium increased risk was associated with medium sized BACs (at or above 0.5 g/L, below 0.8 g/L) and benzoylecgonine. The least risky drug seemed to be cannabis and benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. For male drivers, the risk of being severely injured by driving with any of the psychoactive substances was about 65% of that of female drivers. For each of the substance groups there was a decrease in the risk of severe driver injury with increasing age. It is concluded that among psychoactive substances alcohol still poses the largest problem in terms of driver risk of getting injured.

AB - Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cannabis, illicit opiates, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, i.e. zolpidem and zopiclone, medicinal opioids, alcohol-drug combinations and drug-drug combinations). Data from six countries were included in the study: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and the Netherlands. Case samples (N=2,490) were collected from severely injured drivers of passenger cars or vans in selected hospitals in various regions of the countries. Control samples (N=15,832) were sampled in a uniform sampling scheme stratified according to country, time, road type and season. Relative risks were approximated by odds ratios and calculated by logistic regression. The estimates were adjusted for age, gender and country. The highest risk of the driver being severely injured was associated with driving positive for high concentrations of alcohol (≥ 0.8 g/L), alone or in combination with other psychoactive substances. For alcohol, risk increased exponentially with blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The second most risky category contained various drug-drug combinations, amphetamines and medicinal opioids. Medium increased risk was associated with medium sized BACs (at or above 0.5 g/L, below 0.8 g/L) and benzoylecgonine. The least risky drug seemed to be cannabis and benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. For male drivers, the risk of being severely injured by driving with any of the psychoactive substances was about 65% of that of female drivers. For each of the substance groups there was a decrease in the risk of severe driver injury with increasing age. It is concluded that among psychoactive substances alcohol still poses the largest problem in terms of driver risk of getting injured.

KW - Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

KW - driving under the influence

KW - driver injury risk

KW - road accident

KW - case-control design

U2 - 10.1016/j.aap.2013.06.003

DO - 10.1016/j.aap.2013.06.003

M3 - Journal article

VL - 59

SP - 346

EP - 356

JO - Accident Analysis & Prevention

JF - Accident Analysis & Prevention

SN - 0001-4575

ER -

ID: 46111499