A protocol for evaluating the entomological impact of larval source reduction on mosquito vectors at hotel compounds in Zanzibar

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There is an increasing awareness of the association between tourism activity and risks of emerging mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) worldwide. In previous studies we showed that hotels in Zanzibar may play an important role in maintaining residual foci of mosquito vectors populations of public health concern. These findings indicated larval sources removal (LSR) interventions may have a significant negative impact on vector communities. However, a thorough analysis of the response vector species to potential LSM strategies must be evaluated prior to implementation of a large-scale area-wide control campaign. Here we propose a protocol for evaluation of the impact of LSR against mosquito vectors at hotel settings in Zanzibar. This protocol is set to determine the efficacy of LSR in a randomized control partial cross-over experimental design with four hotel compounds representing the unit of randomization for allocation of interventions. However, the protocol can be applied to evaluate the impact of LRS in more than four sites. Proposed interventions are active removal of disposed containers, and installation of water dispenser to replace single use discarded plastic water bottles, which were identified as the most important source of mosquitoes studied hotels. The ideal time for allocating intervention to the intervention arms the dry season, when the mosquito abundance is predictably lower. The possible impact of interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance risks is then evaluated throughout subsequent rainy and dry seasons. If an appreciable reduction in mosquito abundance and occurrence risks is observed during the trial period, intervention could be extended to the control arm to determine whether any potential reduction of mosquito density is reproducible. A rigorous evaluation of the proposed LRS interventions will inspire large scale trials and provide support for evidence-based mosquito management at hotel facilities in Zanzibar and similar settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0294773
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number11
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright: © 2023 Kampango et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Research areas

  • Animals, Mosquito Vectors, Larva, Mosquito Control/methods, Tanzania, Malaria/epidemiology, Culicidae

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