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Assessment of short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ)

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Ditte Hjorth Lauersen, Karl Bang Christensen, Ulla Christensen, Anne Frøhlich

Background:
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive chronic illness that will affect more than 500 million people worldwide by 2030. It is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Finding the right care management for diabetes patients is necessary to effectively address the growing population of affected individuals and escalating costs. Patient education is one option for improving patient self-management. However, there are large discrepancies in the outcomes of such programs and long-term data are lacking. We assessed the short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ).

Methods:
We conducted a observational cohort study of 83 type 2 diabetes patients participating in patient education programs in Denmark. The seven-scale HeiQ was completed by telephone interview at baseline and 2 weeks (76 participants, 93%) and 12 months (66, 80%) after the patient education ended. Changes over time were assessed using mean values and standard deviation at each time point and Cohen effect sizes.

Results:
Patients reported improvements 2 weeks after the program ended in 4 of 7 constructs: skills and technique acquisition (ES = 0.59), self-monitoring and insight (ES = 0.52), constructive attitudes and approaches (ES = 0.43) and social integration and support (ES = 0.27). After 12 months, patients reported improvements in 3 of 7 constructs: skills and technique acquisition (ES = 0.66), constructive attitudes and approaches (ES = 0.43), and emotional wellbeing (ES = 0.44). Skills and technique showed the largest short- and long-term effect size. No significant changes were found in health-related activity or positive and active engagement in life over time.

Conclusion:
After 12 months, diabetes patients who participated in patient education demonstrated increased self-management skills, improved acceptance of their chronic illness and decreased negative emotional response to their disease. Applying HeiQ as an outcome measure yielded new knowledge as to what patients with diabetes can obtain by participating in a patient education.
Original languageDanish
Article number213
JournalBMC Research Notes
Volume10
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
ISSN1756-0500
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2017

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