Association between dairy consumption and cardiovascular disease events, bone fracture and all-cause mortality

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Dairy products are important constituents of a healthy and balanced diet, but their association with health outcomes remains to be established. We investigated the association of total dairy, total fermented dairy, and different dairy subtypes (including total/high-fat/low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, butter, and cream) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), bone fracture and all-cause mortality among 1746 Danish healthy men and women (30-60 years, 52%female). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. During a mean follow-up of 30 years, incident cases of CVD (n = 904), CHD (n = 332), fracture (n = 447) and all-cause mortality (n = 680) were reported. High intake of total fermented dairy was associated with lower fracture risk (HR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.90, P = 0.02) than observed in the lowest tertile of the fermented dairy group. Furthermore, high intake of low-fat milk was associated with lower risks of CVD (HR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.68-1.03, P = 0.03), CHD (HR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.59- 1.16, P = 0.04), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97, P = 0.004) compared with the lowest tertile of low-fat milk group. No associations were found with other dairy subtypes. The findings from this prospective cohort study suggest an inverse association between total fermented dairy and fracture risk, and also inverse associations were found between low-fat milk consumption and risk of CVD, CHD and all-cause mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0271168
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number9
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2022 Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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