Leptin, IL-6, and suPAR reflect distinct inflammatory changes associated with adiposity, lipodystrophy and low muscle mass in HIV-infected patients and controls

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BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients could exhibit accelerated ageing, since age-associated complications like sarcopenia; increased inflammation; lipodystrophy with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue and/or gain of visceral adipose tissue (VAT); and cardiovascular disease occur at an earlier age. Inflammation is involved in age-associated complications. However, it is not understood whether it is the same inflammatory changes that are involved in the various ageing-associated complications. Our objective was to study whether leptin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were associated distinctively with adiposity, lipodystrophy and sarcopenia, in HIV-infected patients and healthy Controls.

RESULTS: Systemic leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with lipodystrophy than without, whereas there was no difference in IL-6 or suPAR levels. Leptin was significantly positively associated with fat mass index (FMI) and abdominal VAT, but not with lean mass index (LMI). IL-6 was significantly associated with both FMI and VAT, and low LMI. High suPAR was associated with low LMI, and weakly with high FMI and VAT.

CONCLUSIONS: Leptin reflected adiposity- and lipodystrophy-related inflammation, but not sarcopenia. IL-6 reflected both adiposity-, but also sarcopenia-related inflammation; and suPAR was a marker of sarcopenia-related inflammation. Our results indicate that different inflammatory processes can be active simultaneously contributing to the systemic low grade inflammatory state. Identifying major contributors to circulating leptin, IL-6, and suPAR levels could levels could therefore improve our understanding of which inflammatory processes are involved in the various age-related complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9
JournalImmunity & ageing : I & A
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2015

ID: 161943890