Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark. / Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Rasmussen, Brian Schou; Linnet, Kristian.

In: Forensic Science International, Vol. 221, 29.07.2012, p. 33-38.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Simonsen, KW, Steentoft, A, Hels, T, Bernhoft, IM, Rasmussen, BS & Linnet, K 2012, 'Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark.', Forensic Science International, vol. 221, pp. 33-38.

APA

Simonsen, K. W., Steentoft, A., Hels, T., Bernhoft, I. M., Rasmussen, B. S., & Linnet, K. (2012). Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark. Forensic Science International, 221, 33-38.

Vancouver

Simonsen KW, Steentoft A, Hels T, Bernhoft IM, Rasmussen BS, Linnet K. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark. Forensic Science International. 2012 Jul 29;221:33-38.

Author

Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese ; Steentoft, Anni ; Hels, Tove ; Bernhoft, Inger Marie ; Rasmussen, Brian Schou ; Linnet, Kristian. / Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark. In: Forensic Science International. 2012 ; Vol. 221. pp. 33-38.

Bibtex

@article{dc0ed6fe7eaf43b08b916b88ca3c16e5,
title = "Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark.",
abstract = "This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Fourteen (0.5{\%}) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which is the Danish legal limit. The percentage of drivers positive for medicinal drugs above the Danish legal concentration limit was 0.4{\%}; while, 0.3{\%} of the drivers tested positive for one or more illicit drug at concentrations exceeding the Danish legal limit. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, and amphetamine were the most frequent illicit drugs detected above the limit of quantitation (LOQ); while, codeine, tramadol, zopiclone, and benzodiazepines were the most frequent legal drugs. Middle aged men (median age 47.5 years) dominated the drunk driving group, while the drivers positive for illegal drugs consisted mainly of young men (median age 26 years). Middle aged women (median age 44.5 years) often tested positive for benzodiazepines at concentrations exceeding the legal limits. Interestingly, 0.6{\%} of drivers tested positive for tramadol, at concentrations above the DRUID cut off; although, tramadol is not included in the Danish list of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.",
keywords = "Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Drugged and drunk driving, Road site, Oral fluid, alcohol, Illicit drugs, Medicinal drugs",
author = "Simonsen, {Kirsten Wiese} and Anni Steentoft and Tove Hels and Bernhoft, {Inger Marie} and Rasmussen, {Brian Schou} and Kristian Linnet",
year = "2012",
month = "7",
day = "29",
language = "English",
volume = "221",
pages = "33--38",
journal = "Forensic Science International",
issn = "0379-0738",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark.

AU - Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

AU - Steentoft, Anni

AU - Hels, Tove

AU - Bernhoft, Inger Marie

AU - Rasmussen, Brian Schou

AU - Linnet, Kristian

PY - 2012/7/29

Y1 - 2012/7/29

N2 - This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which is the Danish legal limit. The percentage of drivers positive for medicinal drugs above the Danish legal concentration limit was 0.4%; while, 0.3% of the drivers tested positive for one or more illicit drug at concentrations exceeding the Danish legal limit. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, and amphetamine were the most frequent illicit drugs detected above the limit of quantitation (LOQ); while, codeine, tramadol, zopiclone, and benzodiazepines were the most frequent legal drugs. Middle aged men (median age 47.5 years) dominated the drunk driving group, while the drivers positive for illegal drugs consisted mainly of young men (median age 26 years). Middle aged women (median age 44.5 years) often tested positive for benzodiazepines at concentrations exceeding the legal limits. Interestingly, 0.6% of drivers tested positive for tramadol, at concentrations above the DRUID cut off; although, tramadol is not included in the Danish list of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.

AB - This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which is the Danish legal limit. The percentage of drivers positive for medicinal drugs above the Danish legal concentration limit was 0.4%; while, 0.3% of the drivers tested positive for one or more illicit drug at concentrations exceeding the Danish legal limit. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, and amphetamine were the most frequent illicit drugs detected above the limit of quantitation (LOQ); while, codeine, tramadol, zopiclone, and benzodiazepines were the most frequent legal drugs. Middle aged men (median age 47.5 years) dominated the drunk driving group, while the drivers positive for illegal drugs consisted mainly of young men (median age 26 years). Middle aged women (median age 44.5 years) often tested positive for benzodiazepines at concentrations exceeding the legal limits. Interestingly, 0.6% of drivers tested positive for tramadol, at concentrations above the DRUID cut off; although, tramadol is not included in the Danish list of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.

KW - Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

KW - Drugged and drunk driving

KW - Road site

KW - Oral fluid

KW - alcohol

KW - Illicit drugs

KW - Medicinal drugs

M3 - Journal article

VL - 221

SP - 33

EP - 38

JO - Forensic Science International

JF - Forensic Science International

SN - 0379-0738

ER -

ID: 40085143