The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth

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Lise Giorgis-allemand, Marie Pedersen, Claire Bernard, Inmaculada Aguilera, Rob M. J. Beelen, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Asta Danileviciute, Audrius Dedele, Manon Van Eijsden, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-somoano, Mariana F. Fernández, Francesco Forastiere, Ulrike Gehring, Regina Grazuleviciene, Olena Gruzieva, Barbara Heude, Gerard Hoek, Kees De Hoogh & 29 others Edith H. Van Den Hooven, Siri E. Håberg, Carmen Iñiguez, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Aitana Lertxundi, Johanna Lepeule, Per Nafstad, Wenche Nystad, Evridiki Patelarou, Daniela Porta, Dirkje Postma, Ole Raaschou-nielsen, Peter Rudnai, Valérie Siroux, Jordi Sunyer, Euripides Stephanou, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Derek Tuffnell, Mihály J. Varró, Tanja G. M. Vrijkotte, Alet Wijga, John Wright, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Manolis Kogevinas, Rémy Slama

Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994–2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the −5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Volume185
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)247–258
Number of pages12
ISSN0002-9262
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes

ID: 173750176