BACKGROUND: The DANish StUdy of impaired glucose metabolism in the settings of cardiac rehabilitation (DANSUK) examined the effect of an intensified multifactorial intervention on risk factor profile in 104 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) attending hospital-based outpatient comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR) compared to usual care (UC). METHODS: Patients with ischemic heart disease (67%), congestive heart failure (7%), or at least 3 risk factors for ischemic heart disease (26%) discharged from 1 coronary care unit were referred to CCR. Of 473 eligible individuals, 201 agreed to participate in the study, and 52% had T2DM or IGT. Patients randomized to CCR received a stepwise implementation of behavioral modification and pharmacotherapy. RESULTS: After 1 year, patients with T2DM in the CCR group experienced a mean change in HbA1c of -0.65% +/- 0.9% compared with a mean change of -0.08% +/- 0.7% in the UC group (P < .05). Mean change in systolic and diastolic blood pressures was -8 +/- 15 and -5 +/- 9 mm Hg in the CCR group compared with a mean change of -0.8 +/- 15 and -0.2 +/- 7 mm Hg in the UC group (P < .05). Patients with IGT attending CCR obtained a significantly higher exercise capacity compared with patients in the UC group (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: In a group of patients with impaired glucose metabolism attending CCR, an intensified multifactorial intervention with an integrated diabetes module was more efficient in improving risk factor control than UC. Besides the improvement in the exercise capacity of patients with IGT, in patients with T2DM, both HbA1c and blood pressure were lowered to a level that has been shown to reduce both cardiac and diabetic complications. These findings have important implications for patients with impaired glucose metabolism in the future settings of CCR.
Keywords: Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Diabetes Complications; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Female; Glucose Intolerance; Heart Diseases; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors