Alternatives to Mineral Oil Adjuvants in Vaccines Against Aeromonas salmonicida subs. salmonicida in Rainbow Trout Offer Reductions in Adverse Effects

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In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as recipients, injection vaccines based on formalin-inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida were formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, the liposomal cationic adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) or with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant and administered intraperitoneally. Control groups of unvaccinated, Tris-buffered saline-injected or bacterin-injected individuals were included, and each group included in the study held a total number of 240 individuals. Subsequently, individuals from each group were examined for differences in Fulton’s condition factor, macro- and microscopic pathological changes, as well as protection against experimental infection with A. salmonicida. While adverse effects were not eliminated, reductions in microscopic and macroscopic adverse effects, in particular, were seen for both the nucleotide- and liposome-based vaccine formulations. Furthermore, the induced protection appears similar to that of the benchmark formulation, thus introducing viable, potential alternative types of adjuvants for use in future fish vaccines.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5930
JournalScientific Reports
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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