Heart Failure Following Anti-Inflammatory Medications in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Background: Fluid retention and endothelial dysfunction have been related to use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been linked to both a decline in kidney function and subclinical cardiomyopathy. Objectives: The authors hypothesized that short-term use of NSAIDs could lead to subsequent development of incident heart failure (HF) in patients with T2DM. Methods: Using nationwide Danish registers, we identified patients diagnosed with T2DM during 1998 to 2021 and included patients without previous HF, rheumatic disease, or use of NSAIDs 120 days before diagnosis. Associations between NSAIDs and first-time HF hospitalization were investigated using a case-crossover design with 28-day exposure windows, and ORs with 95% CIs were reported. Results: Included were 331,189 patients with T2DM: 44.2% female, median age of 62 years (IQR: 52-71 years); 23,308 patients were hospitalized with HF during follow-up, and 16% of patients claimed at least 1 NSAID prescription within 1 year. Short-term use of NSAIDs was associated with increased risk of HF hospitalization (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.27-1.63), most notably in subgroups with age ≥80 years (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.39-2.28), elevated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c levels treated with 0 to 1 antidiabetic drug (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.00-2.88), and without previous use of NSAIDs (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.78-4.23). Conclusions: NSAIDs were widely used and were associated with an increased risk of first-time HF hospitalization in patients with T2DM. Patients with advanced age, elevated HbA1c levels, and new users of NSAID seemed more susceptible. These findings could guide physicians prescribing NSAIDs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number15
Pages (from-to)1459-1470
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American College of Cardiology Foundation

    Research areas

  • heart failure, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, pharmacoepidemiology, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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